U+54C0, 哀
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-54C0

[U+54BF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+54C1]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(Kangxi radical 30, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 卜口竹女 (YRHV), four-corner 00732, composition𧘇)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 188, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3580
  • Dae Jaweon: page 407, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 620, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+54C0

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qɯːl): phonetic (OC *qɯl, *qɯls) + semantic (mouth).

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.

Probably sound-symbolic (Schuessler, 2007).

PronunciationEdit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ai⁵⁵/
Harbin /ai⁴⁴/
Tianjin /nai²¹/
Jinan /ŋɛ²¹³/
Qingdao /ɣɛ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ai²⁴/
Xi'an /ŋai²¹/
Xining /nɛ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɛ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɛ³¹/
Ürümqi /ai⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ŋai⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ŋai⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ŋai⁵⁵/
/ai⁵⁵/
Kunming /æ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ae³¹/
Hefei /ʐe̞²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɣai¹¹/
Pingyao /ŋæ¹³/
Hohhot /ŋɛ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /e⁵³/
Suzhou /e̞⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔe̞³³/
Wenzhou /e³³/
Hui Shexian /ŋɛ³¹/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ŋai³³/
Xiangtan /ŋai³³/
Gan Nanchang /ŋai⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /oi⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /oi²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ɔi⁵³/
Nanning /ɔi⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /ɔi⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ai⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ai⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /uɛ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ai³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ai²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔʌi/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔəi/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɒi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔəj/
Li
Rong
/ʔᴀi/
Wang
Li
/ɒi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔɑ̆i/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
āi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
oi1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
āi
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔoj ›
Old
Chinese
/*ʔˁəj/
English to pity; sad

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14835
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qɯːl/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to pity; to sympathize
  2. to lament; to mourn
      ―  āidào  ―  to lament; to mourn
      ―  āiqiú  ―  to beg; to implore
  3. sad; mournful; pitiful; sorrowful
      ―  āitòng  ―  sad; grieved
  4. grief; sorrow
    /   ―  jié'āi  ―  to restrain one's grief
  5. orphaned of one's mother due to her passing
  6. a surname.

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𡟓

Coblin (2021) proposes that it is a contraction of Common Neo-Hakka compound 阿姆 (*a¹ moi¹), where *moi¹ may have come from earlier *moi⁴, perhaps related to (OC *mɯʔ, “mother”).

PronunciationEdit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. (Hakka) mother
    / [Sixian Hakka]  ―  yà-ôi [Pha̍k-fa-sṳ]  ―  father and mother; parents

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. pathetic
  2. grief
  3. sorrow

ReadingsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Kanji in this term
あい
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ʔʌi).

NounEdit

(あい) (ai

  1. grief; sorrow; sadness; lamentation
    (あい)(おも)ai o omouto feel grief; to grieve; to mourn; lament
  2. pity; sympathy

SynonymsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ae) (hangeul , McCune–Reischauer ae)

  1. grief, sorrow
  2. sad

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: ai

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.