See also: and
U+6BCD, 母
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BCD

[U+6BCC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BCE]
Commons:Category
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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 80, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 田卜戈 (WYI), four-corner 77500, composition ⿻⿻𠃋𠃌)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 588, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16723
  • Dae Jaweon: page 980, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2380, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6BCD

Further readingEdit


ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Pictogram (象形): a woman with breasts with nipples kneeling or standing. In modern form turned on left side. Compare (OC *naʔ, *nas, “woman”), which has developed similarly, but does not include dots for nipples and has lost one breast in the modern form.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *mow (woman, female).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • mō̤ - “female; capital; suffix”;
  • mū - “mother”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • Xiamen:
      • bú - vernacular;
      • bó͘ - literary.
    • Quanzhou:
      • bú, bó͘ - vernacular;
      • bió - literary.
    • Zhangzhou:
      • bú - vernacular;
      • bó - literary.
    • Taiwan:
      • bó - vernacular;
      • bió/bó͘, bú - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mu²¹⁴/
    Harbin /mu²¹³/
    Tianjin /mu¹³/
    Jinan /mu⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /mu⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /mu⁵³/
    Xi'an /mu⁵³/
    Xining /mv̩⁵³/
    Yinchuan /mu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /mu⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /mu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /mu⁴²/
    /moŋ⁴²/
    Chengdu /mu⁵³/
    Guiyang /mu⁴²/
    Kunming /mu⁵³/
    Nanjing /mu²¹²/
    Hefei /mʊ²⁴/
    /məŋ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /mu⁵³/
    Pingyao /mu⁵³/
    Hohhot /mu⁵³/ ~的
    /məʔ⁰/ 外~娘
    Wu Shanghai /mu²³/
    /m̩²³/
    Suzhou /mo⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /mu⁵³/
    Wenzhou /mu³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /mɔ³⁵/
    /m̩³⁵/
    Tunxi /m̩²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /mo⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /mo⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /mu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /mu⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /mu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mou²³/
    Nanning /mu²⁴/
    Hong Kong /mou¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bɔ⁵³/
    /bu⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /mo³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mu²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /bo⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /mu²¹³/
    /mai²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (137)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /məuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /məuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /məuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /məwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /muX/
    Wang
    Li
    /məuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    mǒu
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ muwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*məʔ/ (? or *mˁoʔ)
    English mother

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9288
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mɯʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. mother
        ―    ―  father and mother
        ―    ―  mother and son
      Antonym: ()
    2. Used to address a female elder member of a family.
        ―    ―  father's sister
        ―    ―  grandmother
      Antonym: ()
    3. (of animal) female
        ―  niú  ―  female cow
      Synonym: ()
      Antonym: (gōng)
    4. pertaining to origin
        ―  xiào  ―  alma mater
    5. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Vietnamese: mẫu ()

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Usage notesEdit

    In isolation, the character has 5 strokes in modern Japanese – it is not simplified. In shinjitai compound characters, such as or , it is simplified to 4 strokes, as . In hyōgaiji characters such as , however, the component is not simplified.

    Alternative formsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    はは
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. /haha/: */papa//fafa//fawa//fafa//haha/

    Medial /f/ [ɸ] regularly changes to /w/ [ɰᵝ], resulting in /fawa//hawa/, the expected final form; see hawa below. This form first appears in the Heian period. However, likely due to spelling influence or reduplication associations, the earlier /fafa/ resurfaced in the late 16th century towards the end of the Muromachi period, with both forms seen until recent times, when hawa falls into disuse.[1] Initial /f-/ [ɸ] regularly becomes [h], resulting in modern [ha̠ha̠].

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (はは) (haha

    1. (humble) mother
      • 931938, Minamoto no Shitagō, Wamyō Ruijushō (book 1, page 116)
        母 尔雅云、母爲妣、卑履反、去聲之重、和名波々、日本紀私記云、以路波
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 196)
        Fafa. l, faua. ハハ. または、ハワ(母) 母.
    Usage notesEdit

    Only ever used to refer to one's own mother when speaking to someone else. Still widely used in modern Japanese.

    AntonymsEdit
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    はわ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. See etymology for haha above for details.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (はわ) (hawa

    1. (humble) mother
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 213)
        Faua. ハワ (母) 母親.
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 196)
        Fafa. l, faua. ハハ. または、ハワ(母) 母.
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 71)
        Caca. カカ (かか) Faua (母)に同じ. 母. これは子供の言葉である. また、尊敬すべき婦人、あるいは、年長で一家の主婦のような婦人の意に取られる.
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 60)
        Bogui. ボギ (母儀) Faua (母)に同じ. 母.
    Usage notesEdit

    Obsolete in mainstream Japanese. May persist in dialects.

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Possibly an abbreviation of haha, or possibly the original form.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (ha

    1. (obsolete) mother
    Usage notesEdit

    Not found in isolation, only found in compounds. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese.

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あも
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Already falling into disuse by the writing of the Man'yōshū in 759, where it is only found in pieces written in eastern dialects.[1] Possibly cognate with Korean 엄마 (eomma, mother), 어머니 (eomeoni, mother).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (あも) (amo

    1. (obsolete) mother
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4376)
        多妣由岐尓 由久等之良受弖 阿母志々尓 己等麻乎佐受弖 伊麻叙久夜之氣
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4377)
        阿母刀自母 多麻尓母賀母夜 伊多太伎弖 美都良乃奈可尓 阿敝麻可麻久母
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4378)
        都久比夜波 須具波由氣等毛 阿母志々可 多麻乃須我多波 和須例西奈布母
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4383)
        都乃久尓乃 宇美能奈伎佐尓 布奈餘曽比 多志埿毛等伎尓 阿母我米母我母
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    おも
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Appears to be an alteration from amo above.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (おも) (omo

    1. (obsolete) mother
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4386)
        和加々都乃 以都母等夜奈枳 以都母々々々 於母加古比須々 奈理麻之都之母
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4401)
        可良己呂武 須宗尓等里都伎 奈苦古良乎 意伎弖曽伎怒也 意母奈之尓志弖
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4402)
        知波夜布留 賀美乃美佐賀尓 奴佐麻都里 伊波布伊能知波 意毛知々我多米
    2. a woman who breastfeeds and raises a child in place of a parent: a wet nurse
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 12, poem 2925)
        緑児之 為社乳母者 求云 乳飲哉君之 於毛求覧
    Derived termsEdit
    SynonymsEdit

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かか
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Unknown. One theory holds that this is a corrupted and abbreviated form of 御方様 (okatasama), a term to refer to or address someone else's wife (now extremely formal, but much more everyday in the Edo period), possibly influenced by children's speech:

    /okatasama//katasama//kakasama//kaka/

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (かか) (kaka

    1. (childish) mommy, mummy
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 71)
        Caca. カカ (かか) Faua (母)に同じ. 母. これは子供の言葉である. また、尊敬すべき婦人、あるいは、年長で一家の主婦のような婦人の意に取られる.
    2. (obsolete) wife
      Seen in the Edo period among the lower socioeconomic classes. Used to refer both to one's own wife when talking to others, and to refer to someone else's wife.[1]
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 7Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かあ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Alteration of kaka[1]: /kaka//-kka//kaː/

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (かあ) (

    1. mother
    Usage notesEdit

    Almost never seen in isolation. Most commonly seen with honorific prefix o- and honorific suffix -san, as (かあ)さん (okāsan).

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 어미 (eomi mo))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: mẫu[1][2]
    : Nôm readings: mẫu[1][2][3][4], mẹ[5]

    1. Hán tự form of mẫu (mother).

    ReferencesEdit