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U+6BCD, 母
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BCD

[U+6BCC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BCE]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 80, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 田卜戈 (WYI), four-corner 77500, composition ⿻⿻𠃋𠃌)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 588, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16723
  • Dae Jaweon: page 980, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2380, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6BCD

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mɯːs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mlɯːʔ, *mɯːʔ
*hmlɯːʔ
*ʔmɯː, *ʔmɯːʔ
*mɯ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ, *mɯs, *maːʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯs, *mɯːʔ, *mɯːs
*mɯs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mrɯʔ, *mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*ma
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯːʔ
*mɯːs
*mɯːs, *hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːʔ, *hmɯːs
*mrɯl

Pictogram (象形): a woman with breasts with nipples kneeling or standing. In modern form turned on left side. Compare (OC *naʔ, *nas, “woman”), which has developed similarly, but does not include dots for nipples and has lost one breast in the modern form.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *mow (woman, female).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • mō̤ - “female; capital; suffix”;
  • mū - “mother”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • Xiamen:
      • bú - vernacular;
      • bó͘ - literary.
    • Quanzhou:
      • bú, bó͘ - vernacular;
      • bió - literary.
    • Zhangzhou:
      • bú - vernacular;
      • bó - literary.
    • Taiwan:
      • bó - vernacular;
      • bió/bó͘, bú - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mu²¹⁴/
    Harbin /mu²¹³/
    Tianjin /mu¹³/
    Jinan /mu⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /mu⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /mu⁵³/
    Xi'an /mu⁵³/
    Xining /mv̩⁵³/
    Yinchuan /mu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /mu⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /mu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /mu⁴²/
    /moŋ⁴²/
    Chengdu /mu⁵³/
    Guiyang /mu⁴²/
    Kunming /mu⁵³/
    Nanjing /mu²¹²/
    Hefei /mʊ²⁴/
    /məŋ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /mu⁵³/
    Pingyao /mu⁵³/
    Hohhot /mu⁵³/ ~的
    /məʔ⁰/ 外~娘
    Wu Shanghai /mu²³/
    /m̩²³/
    Suzhou /mo⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /mu⁵³/
    Wenzhou /mu³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /mɔ³⁵/
    /m̩³⁵/
    Tunxi /m̩²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /mo⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /mo⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /mu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /mu⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /mu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mou²³/
    Nanning /mu²⁴/
    Hong Kong /mou¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bɔ⁵³/
    /bu⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /mo³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mu²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /bo⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /mu²¹³/
    /mai²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (137)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /məuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /məuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /məuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /məwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /muX/
    Wang
    Li
    /məuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    mǒu
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ muwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*məʔ/ (? or *mˁoʔ)
    English mother

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9288
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mɯʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. mother
      Synonyms: 媽媽妈妈 (māma)
        ―    ―  father and mother
        ―    ―  mother and son
    2. (suffix) elderly female relative
        ―    ―  father's sister
        ―    ―  grandmother
    3. (of animal) female
      Synonyms: ()
      Antonyms: (gōng)
        ―  niú  ―  female cow
    4. pertaining to origin
        ―  xiào  ―  alma mater
    5. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
    Mandarin Beijing 媽媽, ,
    Taiwan 媽媽,
    Tianjin 媽媽,
    Harbin , 媽媽
    Shenyang 媽媽
    Jinan , 媽媽,
    Muping
    Luoyang , 媽兒
    Wanrong
    Wanrong (Ronghe)
    Xi'an
    Xining 阿媽, 媽媽, 姆媽
    Xuzhou 媽媽, , 大兒
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi 媽媽, , 阿娘 Hui, 阿娘子 used with minorities
    Wuhan 姆媽, 媽媽
    Chengdu 媽媽,
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou 阿媽,
    Kunming
    Yangzhou 媽媽, 姆媽
    Nanjing , 姆媽,
    Hefei , 媽爺
    Cantonese Guangzhou 阿媽, 媽媽
    Hong Kong 媽咪, 阿媽, 媽媽
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 阿媽, 阿奶
    Taishan
    Dongguan 阿媽, 阿奶, 阿姐, 媽媽 childish, 媽咪 childish
    Yangjiang 阿媽, 阿娘
    Xinyi 阿媽
    Nanning 媽媽, 阿媽,
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur 阿媽, 媽咪
    Gan Nanchang 姆媽
    Lichuan 姆媽
    Pingxiang 姆媽
    Hakka Meixian 阿姆, 阿嫲
    Xingning 阿媽
    Qujiang 阿姆
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 阿姆, 阿嬸
    Changting 姆媽, 姆娓
    Pingyu
    Wuping 姆姆, 依呀
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 姆媽
    Yudu , 媽媽,
    Ruijin 姆媽
    Shicheng 姆媽
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿姆
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿姆, 姆媽
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿姆
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿姆
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 阿姆
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿依
    Hong Kong 阿媽
    Sabah 阿姆
    Senai 阿媽
    Singkawang 阿姆
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou 波哇, 波波呀, 呀波呀
    Min Bei Jian'ou 依呀, 媽媽
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依媽, 依奶
    Fuqing , 依奶, 媽媽, 依娜
    Matsu 依奶
    Min Nan Xiamen 阿母, 阿母仔, 母仔, 阿媽, 阿娘
    Quanzhou 阿母, 母仔, 阿娘
    Zhangzhou 阿母, 母仔, 咉奶, 嘔傴 euphemistic
    Taipei 阿母, 阿娘, 媽媽
    Kaohsiung 卡桑, 阿母仔
    Tainan 歐卡桑, 阿母, 俺娘仔, 娘嬭
    Taichung 媽媽, 阿母
    Hsinchu 媽媽, 阿娘, 阿母
    Lukang 阿母, 阿娘, 姨仔
    Sanxia 阿母, 阿娘, 姨仔
    Yilan 阿母, 阿娘
    Kinmen 俺娘仔
    Magong 阿母
    Penang 阿母, 阿媽, 媽媽,
    Singapore 阿母
    Philippines (Manila) 媽媽,
    Chaozhou 阿媽, 阿娘, 阿姈
    Shantou 阿媽
    Haifeng , 媽媽
    Johor Bahru 阿媽, 媽媽
    Haikou 阿媽, 阿姐, 阿娘 dated, 阿嫂 dated
    Leizhou , dated
    Pinghua Nanning , 阿嫂, 阿嬸, 阿媼 dated
    Wu Shanghai 媽媽, 姆媽
    Suzhou 姆媽
    Hangzhou 姆媽, 媽媽
    Wenzhou 阿媽, 阿奶,
    Chongming 姆媽
    Danyang ,
    Jinhua 姆媽
    Ningbo 阿姆, 姆媽
    Xiang Changsha 媽媽, 姆媽, 娘老子
    Shuangfeng 姆媽
    Loudi 依爺, 姆媽, 娘老子
    Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (non-face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
    Mandarin Beijing 媽媽, ,
    Taiwan 媽媽,
    Tianjin 媽媽,
    Harbin , 媽媽
    Shenyang 媽媽
    Jinan , 媽媽,
    Muping
    Wanrong
    Wanrong (Ronghe)
    Xi'an
    Xining 阿媽, 媽媽, 姆媽
    Xuzhou 媽媽, , 大兒
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou , 老媽
    Ürümqi 老娘
    Wuhan 姆媽, 媽媽, 老娘, 黎山老 slang, 孟子見 dated slang
    Chengdu 媽媽,
    Guiyang , 老媽 humorous
    Liuzhou , 阿媽, 娘老, 老媽子
    Kunming 媽媽
    Yangzhou 媽媽, 姆媽, 老娘
    Nanjing , 姆媽,
    Hefei , 媽爺
    Nantong 娘嬭
    Cantonese Guangzhou 老母
    Hong Kong 老母, 老媽子, 阿媽, 媽咪
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 老母, 阿奶
    Taishan
    Dongguan 阿媽, 阿奶, 阿姐, 老母, 老乸 Changping, 媽媽 childish, 媽咪 childish
    Yunfu 老母
    Yangjiang 阿奶
    Xinyi 老母
    Nanning , 老乸
    Kuala Lumpur 老媽子
    Gan Nanchang 姆媽,
    Lichuan , 家母
    Pingxiang 姆媽, 娘老子
    Hakka Meixian 哀仔
    Xingning 哀哩, 阿媽
    Huidong (Daling) 阿姆,
    Qujiang 哀子
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 阿姆
    Changting 哀哩
    Pingyu 哀子
    Wuping 哀哩
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 姆媽
    Ruijin , 乳子
    Shicheng
    Shangyou 姐佬
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 哀仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 哀仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 哀仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 哀仔
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong 阿姆
    Senai 吾媽
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi ,
    Jin Taiyuan 媽媽,
    Xinzhou , 波波
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou 娘嬭
    Fuqing 娘嬭
    Matsu 娘嬭
    Min Nan Xiamen 老母, 娘嬭, 阿娘
    Quanzhou 老母, 阿娘
    Zhangzhou 老母, 娘嬭
    Taipei 老母
    Kaohsiung 老母
    Tainan 老母
    Taichung 老母, 媽媽
    Hsinchu 老母
    Lukang 老母
    Sanxia 老母
    Yilan 老母
    Kinmen 老母, 俺母
    Magong 老母
    Penang 老母
    Singapore 老母
    Philippines (Manila) 老母
    Chaozhou 阿嬡
    Shantou ,
    Haifeng , 媽媽
    Johor Bahru 我媽
    Haikou
    Leizhou , , 尼母, 尼姨 dated
    Pinghua Nanning , 老娘, , , 阿媼 dated
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou , 姆媽
    Hangzhou 姆媽, 媽媽,
    Wenzhou 阿媽, 阿奶,
    Chongming
    Danyang ,
    Jinhua
    Ningbo 阿娘
    Xiang Changsha 媽媽, , 姆媽, 娘老子
    Shuangfeng 姆媽,
    Loudi 依爺, 姆媽, , 娘老子

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Usage notesEdit

    In isolation, the character has 5 strokes in modern Japanese – it is not simplified. In shinjitai compound characters, such as or , it is simplified to 4 strokes, as . In hyōgaiji characters such as , however, the component is not simplified.

    Alternative formsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    はは
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. /haha/: */papa//fafa//fawa//fafa//haha/

    Medial /f/ [ɸ] regularly changes to /w/ [ɰᵝ], resulting in /fawa//hawa/, the expected final form; see hawa below. This form first appears in the Heian period. However, likely due to spelling influence or reduplication associations, the earlier /fafa/ resurfaced in the late 16th century towards the end of the Muromachi period, with both forms seen until recent times, when hawa falls into disuse.[1] Initial /f-/ [ɸ] regularly becomes [h], resulting in modern [ha̠ha̠].

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana はは, rōmaji haha)

    1. (humble) mother
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 116:
        母 尔雅云、母爲妣、卑履反、去聲之重、和名波々、日本紀私記云、以路波
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 196)
        Fafa. l, faua. ハハ. または、ハワ(母) 母.
    Usage notesEdit

    Only ever used to refer to one's own mother when speaking to someone else. Still widely used in modern Japanese.

    AntonymsEdit
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    はわ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. See etymology for haha above for details.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana はわ, rōmaji hawa)

    1. (humble) mother
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 213)
        Faua. ハワ (母) 母親.
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 196)
        Fafa. l, faua. ハハ. または、ハワ(母) 母.
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 71)
        Caca. カカ (かか) Faua (母)に同じ. 母. これは子供の言葉である. また、尊敬すべき婦人、あるいは、年長で一家の主婦のような婦人の意に取られる.
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 60)
        Bogui. ボギ (母儀) Faua (母)に同じ. 母.
    Usage notesEdit

    Obsolete in mainstream Japanese. May persist in dialects.

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Possibly an abbreviation of haha, or possibly the original form.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ha)

    1. (obsolete) mother
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 116:
        母 尔雅云、母爲妣、卑履反、去聲之重、和名波々、日本紀私記云、以路
    Usage notesEdit

    Not found in isolation, only found in compounds. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese.

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あも
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Already falling into disuse by the writing of the Man'yōshū in 759, where it is only found in pieces written in eastern dialects.[1] Possibly cognate with Korean 엄마 (eomma, mother), 어머니 (eomeoni, mother).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あも, rōmaji amo)

    1. (obsolete) mother
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4376)
        多妣由岐尓 由久等之良受弖 阿母志々尓 己等麻乎佐受弖 伊麻叙久夜之氣
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4377)
        阿母刀自母 多麻尓母賀母夜 伊多太伎弖 美都良乃奈可尓 阿敝麻可麻久母
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4378)
        都久比夜波 須具波由氣等毛 阿母志々可 多麻乃須我多波 和須例西奈布母
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4383)
        都乃久尓乃 宇美能奈伎佐尓 布奈餘曽比 多志埿毛等伎尓 阿母我米母我母
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    おも
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Appears to be an alteration from amo above.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana おも, rōmaji omo)

    1. (obsolete) mother
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4386)
        和加々都乃 以都母等夜奈枳 以都母々々々 於母加古比須々 奈理麻之都之母
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4401)
        可良己呂武 須宗尓等里都伎 奈苦古良乎 意伎弖曽伎怒也 意母奈之尓志弖
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4402)
        知波夜布留 賀美乃美佐賀尓 奴佐麻都里 伊波布伊能知波 意毛知々我多米
    2. a woman who breastfeeds and raises a child in place of a parent: a wet nurse
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 12, poem 2925)
        緑児之 為社乳母者 求云 乳飲哉君之 於毛求覧
    Derived termsEdit
    SynonymsEdit

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かか
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Unknown. One theory holds that this is a corrupted and abbreviated form of 御方様 (okatasama), a term to refer to or address someone else's wife (now extremely formal, but much more everyday in the Edo period), possibly influenced by children's speech:

    /okatasama//katasama//kakasama//kaka/

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かか, rōmaji kaka)

    1. (childish) mommy, mummy
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 71)
        Caca. カカ (かか) Faua (母)に同じ. 母. これは子供の言葉である. また、尊敬すべき婦人、あるいは、年長で一家の主婦のような婦人の意に取られる.
    2. (obsolete) wife
      Seen in the Edo period among the lower socioeconomic classes. Used to refer both to one's own wife when talking to others, and to refer to someone else's wife.[1]
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 7Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かあ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Alteration of kaka[1]: /kaka//-kka//kaː/

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かあ, rōmaji )

    1. mother
    Usage notesEdit

    Almost never seen in isolation. Most commonly seen with honorific prefix o- and honorific suffix -san, as  (かあ)さん (okāsan).

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 어미 (eomi mo))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit