Open main menu

Wiktionary β

U+6BCD, 母
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BCD

[U+6BCC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BCE]
See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 80 +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 田卜戈 (WYI), four-corner 77500)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 588, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16723
  • Dae Jaweon: page 980, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2380, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6BCD

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mɯːs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mlɯːʔ, *mɯːʔ
*hmlɯːʔ
*ʔmɯː, *ʔmɯːʔ
*mɯ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ, *mɯs, *maːʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯs, *mɯːʔ, *mɯːs
*mɯs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mrɯʔ, *mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*ma
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯːʔ
*mɯːs
*mɯːs, *hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːʔ, *hmɯːs
*mrɯl

Pictogram (象形): a woman with breasts with nipples kneeling or standing. In modern form turned on left side. Compare (OC *naʔ, *nas, “woman”), which has developed similarly, but does not include dots for nipples and has lost one breast in the modern form.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *mow (woman, female).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Xiamen:
    • bú - vernacular;
    • bó͘ - literary.
  • Quanzhou:
    • bú, bó͘ - vernacular;
    • bió - literary.
  • Zhangzhou:
    • bú - vernacular;
    • bó - literary.
  • Taiwan:
    • bó - vernacular;
    • bió/bó͘, bú - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /mu²¹⁴/
Harbin /mu²¹³/
Tianjin /mu¹³/
Jinan /mu⁵⁵/
Qingdao /mu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /mu⁵³/
Xi'an /mu⁵³/
Xining /mv̩⁵³/
Yinchuan /mu⁵³/
Lanzhou /mu⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /mu⁵¹/
Wuhan /mu⁴²/
/moŋ⁴²/
Chengdu /mu⁵³/
Guiyang /mu⁴²/
Kunming /mu⁵³/
Nanjing /mu²¹²/
Hefei /mʊ²⁴/
/məŋ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /mu⁵³/
Pingyao /mu⁵³/
Hohhot /mu⁵³/ ~的
/məʔ⁰/ 外~娘
Wu Shanghai /mu²³/
/m̩²³/
Suzhou /mo⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /mu⁵³/
Wenzhou /mu³⁵/
Hui Shexian /mɔ³⁵/
/m̩³⁵/
Tunxi /m̩²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /mo⁴¹/
Xiangtan /mo⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /mu²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /mu⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /mu²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mou²³/
Nanning /mu²⁴/
Hong Kong /mou¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bɔ⁵³/
/bu⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /mo³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mu²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /bo⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /mu²¹³/
/mai²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (137)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/məuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/məuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/məuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/məwX/
Li
Rong
/muX/
Wang
Li
/məuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
mǒu
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ muwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*məʔ/ (? or *mˤoʔ)
English mother

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9288
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. mother
  2. female (animal)
      ―  niú  ―  cow

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (face-to-face)”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
Mandarin Beijing 媽媽
Taiwan 媽媽
Tianjin 媽媽
Harbin 媽媽
Shenyang 媽媽
Jinan 媽媽
Muping
Luoyang 媽兒
Jiedian
Ronghe
Xi'an
Xining 阿媽媽媽姆媽
Xuzhou 媽媽大兒
Yinchuan
Lanzhou
Ürümqi 媽媽阿娘 Hui阿娘子 used with minorities
Wuhan 姆媽媽媽
Chengdu 媽媽
Guiyang
Liuzhou 阿媽
Kunming
Yangzhou 媽媽姆媽
Nanjing 姆媽
Hefei 媽爺
Cantonese Guangzhou 阿媽媽媽
Hong Kong 媽咪阿媽媽媽
Dongguan 阿媽阿奶阿姐媽媽 childish媽咪 childish
Hong Kong (Weitou) 阿媽阿奶
Taishan
Yangjiang 阿媽阿娘
Xinyi 阿媽
Nanning 媽媽阿媽
Kuala Lumpur 阿媽媽咪
Gan Nanchang 姆媽
Lichuan 姆媽
Pingxiang 姆媽
Hakka Meixian 阿姆阿嫲
Xingning 阿媽
Qujiang 阿姆
Xiaosanjiang 阿姆阿嬸
Changting 姆媽姆娓
Pingyu
Wuping 姆姆依呀
Liancheng
Ninghua 姆媽
Yudu 媽媽
Ruijin 姆媽
Shicheng 姆媽
Shangyou
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿姆
Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿姆姆媽
Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿姆
Dongshi (Dabu) 阿姆
Zhuolan (Raoping) 阿姆
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿依
Hong Kong 阿媽
Sabah 阿姆
Senai 阿媽
Singkawang 阿姆
Huizhou Jixi
Jin Taiyuan
Xinzhou 波哇波波呀呀波呀
Min Bei Jian'ou 依呀媽媽
Min Dong Fuzhou 依媽依奶
Fuqing 依奶媽媽依娜
Matsu 依奶
Min Nan Xiamen 阿母阿母仔母仔阿媽阿娘
Quanzhou 阿母母仔阿娘
Zhangzhou 阿母母仔
Taipei 阿母阿娘媽媽
Kaohsiung 卡桑阿母仔
Tainan 歐卡桑阿母俺娘仔娘嬭
Taichung 媽媽阿母
Hsinchu 媽媽阿娘阿母
Lukang 阿母阿娘姨仔
Sanxia 阿母阿娘姨仔
Yilan 阿母阿娘
Kinmen 俺娘仔
Magong 阿母
Penang 阿母阿媽媽媽
Singapore 阿母
Chaozhou 阿媽阿娘阿姈
Haifeng 媽媽
Johor Bahru 阿媽媽媽
Haikou 阿媽阿姐阿娘 dated阿嫂 dated
Leizhou dated
Pinghua Nanning 阿媼 dated
Wu Shanghai 媽媽姆媽
Suzhou 姆媽
Hangzhou 姆媽媽媽
Wenzhou 阿媽阿奶
Chongming 姆媽
Danyang
Jinhua 姆媽
Ningbo 阿姆姆媽
Xiang Changsha 媽媽姆媽娘老子
Shuangfeng 姆媽
Loudi 依爺姆媽娘老子
Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (non-face-to-face)”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
Mandarin Beijing 媽媽
Taiwan 媽媽
Tianjin 媽媽
Harbin 媽媽
Shenyang 媽媽
Jinan 媽媽
Muping
Jiedian
Ronghe
Xi'an
Xining 阿媽媽媽姆媽
Xuzhou 媽媽大兒
Yinchuan
Lanzhou 老媽
Ürümqi 老娘
Wuhan 姆媽媽媽老娘黎山老 slang孟子見 dated slang
Chengdu 媽媽
Guiyang 老媽 humorous
Liuzhou 阿媽娘老老媽子
Kunming 媽媽
Yangzhou 媽媽姆媽老娘
Nanjing 姆媽
Hefei 媽爺
Nantong 娘嬭
Cantonese Guangzhou 老母
Hong Kong 老母老媽子阿媽媽咪
Dongguan 阿媽阿奶阿姐老母老乸 Changping媽媽 childish媽咪 childish
Hong Kong (Weitou) 老母阿奶
Taishan
Yunfu 老母
Yangjiang 阿奶
Xinyi 老母
Nanning 老乸
Kuala Lumpur 老媽子
Gan Nanchang 姆媽
Lichuan 家母
Pingxiang 姆媽娘老子
Hakka Meixian 哀仔
Xingning 哀哩阿媽
Huidong 阿姆
Qujiang 哀子
Xiaosanjiang 阿姆
Changting 哀哩
Pingyu 哀子
Wuping 哀哩
Liancheng
Ninghua 姆媽
Ruijin 乳子
Shicheng
Shangyou 姐佬
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 哀仔
Liudui (S. Sixian) 哀仔
Hsinchu (Hailu) 哀仔
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping) 哀仔
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Hong Kong 阿姆
Senai 吾媽
Singkawang
Huizhou Jixi
Jin Taiyuan 媽媽
Xinzhou 波波
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou 娘嬭
Fuqing 娘嬭
Matsu 娘嬭
Min Nan Xiamen 老母娘嬭阿娘
Quanzhou 老母阿娘
Zhangzhou 老母娘嬭
Taipei 老母
Kaohsiung 老母
Tainan 老母
Taichung 老母媽媽
Hsinchu 老母
Lukang 老母
Sanxia 老母
Yilan 老母
Kinmen 老母俺母
Magong 老母
Penang 老母
Singapore 老母
Chaozhou 阿嬡
Shantou
Haifeng 媽媽
Johor Bahru 我媽
Haikou
Leizhou 尼母尼姨 dated
Pinghua Nanning 老娘阿媼 dated
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou 姆媽
Hangzhou 姆媽媽媽
Wenzhou 阿媽阿奶
Chongming
Danyang
Jinhua
Ningbo 阿娘
Xiang Changsha 媽媽姆媽娘老子
Shuangfeng 姆媽
Loudi 依爺姆媽娘老子

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Usage notesEdit

In isolation, the character has 5 strokes in modern Japanese – it is not simplified. In shinjitai compound characters, such as or , it is simplified to 4 strokes, as , but this simplification is not used in isolation. In hyōgaiji characters such as , however, the component is not simplified.

Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
はは
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Old Japanese. /haha/: */papa//fafa//fawa//fafa//haha/

Medial /f/ [ɸ] regularly changes to /w/ [ɰᵝ], resulting in /fawa//hawa/, the expected final form; see hawa below. This form first appears in the Heian period. However, likely due to spelling influence or reduplication associations, the earlier /fafa/ resurfaced in the late 16th century towards the end of the Muromachi period, with both forms seen until recent times, when hawa falls into disuse.[1] Initial /f-/ [ɸ] invalid IPA characters (//[]) regularly becomes [h], resulting in modern [ha̠ha̠].

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana はは, rōmaji haha)

  1. (humble) mother
    • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 116:
      母 尔雅云、母爲妣、卑履反、去聲之重、和名波々、日本紀私記云、以路波
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 196)
      Fafa. l, faua. ハハ. または、ハワ(母) 母.
Usage notesEdit

Only ever used to refer to one's own mother when speaking to someone else. Still widely used in modern Japanese.

AntonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
はわ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. See etymology for haha above for details.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana はわ, rōmaji hawa)

  1. (humble) mother
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 213)
      Faua. ハワ (母) 母親.
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 196)
      Fafa. l, faua. ハハ. または、ハワ(母) 母.
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 71)
      Caca. カカ (かか) Faua (母)に同じ. 母. これは子供の言葉である. また、尊敬すべき婦人、あるいは、年長で一家の主婦のような婦人の意に取られる.
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 60)
      Bogui. ボギ (母儀) Faua (母)に同じ. 母.
Usage notesEdit

Obsolete in mainstream Japanese. May persist in dialects.

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Old Japanese. Possibly an abbreviation of haha, or possibly the original form.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji ha)

  1. (obsolete) mother
    • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 116:
      母 尔雅云、母爲妣、卑履反、去聲之重、和名波々、日本紀私記云、以路
Usage notesEdit

Not found in isolation, only found in compounds. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
あも
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Already falling into disuse by the writing of the Man'yōshū in 759, where it is only found in pieces written in eastern dialects.[1] Possibly cognate with Korean 엄마 (eomma, mother), 어머니 (eomeoni, mother).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana あも, rōmaji amo)

  1. (obsolete) mother
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4376)
      多妣由岐尓 由久等之良受弖 阿母志々尓 己等麻乎佐受弖 伊麻叙久夜之氣
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4377)
      阿母刀自母 多麻尓母賀母夜 伊多太伎弖 美都良乃奈可尓 阿敝麻可麻久母
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4378)
      都久比夜波 須具波由氣等毛 阿母志々可 多麻乃須我多波 和須例西奈布母
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4383)
      都乃久尓乃 宇美能奈伎佐尓 布奈餘曽比 多志埿毛等伎尓 阿母我米母我母
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
おも
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Appears to be an alteration from amo above.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana おも, rōmaji omo)

  1. (obsolete) mother
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4386)
      和加々都乃 以都母等夜奈枳 以都母々々々 於母加古比須々 奈理麻之都之母
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4401)
      可良己呂武 須宗尓等里都伎 奈苦古良乎 意伎弖曽伎怒也 意母奈之尓志弖
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4402)
      知波夜布留 賀美乃美佐賀尓 奴佐麻都里 伊波布伊能知波 意毛知々我多米
  2. a woman who breastfeeds and raises a child in place of a parent: a wet nurse
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 12, poem 2925)
      緑児之 為社乳母者 求云 乳飲哉君之 於毛求覧
Derived termsEdit
SynonymsEdit
  • (wet nurse): 乳母 (うば, ​uba)

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
かか
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Unknown. One theory holds that this is a corrupted and abbreviated form of 御方様 (okatasama), a term to refer to or address someone else's wife (now extremely formal, but much more everyday in the Edo period), possibly influenced by children's speech:

/okatasama//katasama//kakasama//kaka/

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かか, rōmaji kaka)

  1. (childish) mommy, mummy
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 71)
      Caca. カカ (かか) Faua (母)に同じ. 母. これは子供の言葉である. また、尊敬すべき婦人、あるいは、年長で一家の主婦のような婦人の意に取られる.
  2. (obsolete) wife
    Seen in the Edo period among the lower socioeconomic classes. Used to refer both to one's own wife when talking to others, and to refer to someone else's wife.[1]
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 7Edit

Kanji in this term
かあ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Alteration of kaka[1]: /kaka//-kka//kaː/

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かあ, rōmaji )

  1. mother
Usage notesEdit

Almost never seen in isolation. Most commonly seen with honorific prefix o- and honorific suffix -san, as お母さん (​okāsan).

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(mo)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: mo, McCune-Reischauer: mo, Yale: mo)
    • Name (hangeul): 어미 (revised: eomi, McCune-Reischauer: ŏmi, Yale: emi)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(mẫu, mẹ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.