See also: and
U+6BCD, 母
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BCD

[U+6BCC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BCE]
U+2E9F, ⺟
CJK RADICAL MOTHER

[U+2E9E]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2EA0]
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
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Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 80, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 田卜戈 (WYI), four-corner 77500, composition ⿻⿻𠃋𠃌)

Derived characters edit

Related characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 588, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16723
  • Dae Jaweon: page 980, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2380, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6BCD

Further reading edit

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Pictogram (象形): a woman with breasts with nipples kneeling or standing. In modern form turned on left side. Compare (OC *naʔ, *nas, “woman”), which has developed similarly, but does not include dots for nipples and has lost one breast in the modern form.

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *mow (woman, female).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • mō̤ - “female; capital; suffix”;
  • mū - “mother”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • Xiamen:
      • bú - vernacular;
      • bó͘ - literary.
    • Quanzhou:
      • bú, bó͘ - vernacular;
      • bió - literary.
    • Zhangzhou:
      • bú - vernacular;
      • bó - literary.
    • Taiwan:
      • bó - vernacular;
      • bió/bó͘, bú - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mu²¹⁴/
    Harbin /mu²¹³/
    Tianjin /mu¹³/
    Jinan /mu⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /mu⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /mu⁵³/
    Xi'an /mu⁵³/
    Xining /mv̩⁵³/
    Yinchuan /mu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /mu⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /mu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /mu⁴²/
    /moŋ⁴²/
    Chengdu /mu⁵³/
    Guiyang /mu⁴²/
    Kunming /mu⁵³/
    Nanjing /mu²¹²/
    Hefei /mʊ²⁴/
    /məŋ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /mu⁵³/
    Pingyao /mu⁵³/
    Hohhot /mu⁵³/ ~的
    /məʔ⁰/ 外~娘
    Wu Shanghai /mu²³/
    /m̩²³/
    Suzhou /mo⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /mu⁵³/
    Wenzhou /mu³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /mɔ³⁵/
    /m̩³⁵/
    Tunxi /m̩²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /mo⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /mo⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /mu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /mu⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /mu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mou²³/
    Nanning /mu²⁴/
    Hong Kong /mou¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /bɔ⁵³/
    /bu⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /mo³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mu²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /bo⁵³/
    Haikou (Hainanese) /mu²¹³/
    /mai²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (137)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter muwX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /məuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /məuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /məuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /məwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /muX/
    Wang
    Li
    /məuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    mǒu
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    mau5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ muwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*məʔ/ (? or *mˁoʔ)
    English mother

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9288
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mɯʔ/

    Definitions edit

    1. mother
        ―    ―  father and mother
        ―    ―  mother and son
      Antonym:
    2. Used to address a female elder member of a family.
        ―    ―  father's sister
        ―    ―  grandmother
      Antonym:
    3. (of animal) female
        ―  niú  ―  female cow
      Synonym: ()
      Antonym: (gōng)
    4. (figuratively, of instruments, tools, or connectors) female
    5. pertaining to origin
        ―  xiào  ―  alma mater
    6. a surname

    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Vietnamese: mẫu ()

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Usage notes edit

    In isolation, the character has 5 strokes in modern Japanese – it is not simplified. In shinjitai compound characters, such as or , it is simplified to 4 strokes, as . In hyōgaiji characters such as , however, the component is not simplified.

    Alternative forms edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    はは
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    /haha/: */papa//fafa//fawa//fafa//haha/.

    Medial /f/ [ɸ] regularly changes to /w/ [ɰᵝ], resulting in /fawa//hawa/, the expected final form; see hawa below. This form first appears in the Heian period. However, likely due to spelling influence or reduplication associations, the earlier /fafa/ resurfaced in the late 16th century towards the end of the Muromachi period, with both forms seen until recent times, when hawa falls into disuse.[1] Initial /f-/ [ɸ] regularly becomes [h], resulting in modern [ha̠ha̠].

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (はは) (hahaはは (fafa)?

    1. mother
      ()()(のぶ)(なが)(はは)(なぞ)(おお)い。
      Oda Nobunaga no haha wa nazo ga ōi.
      Oda Nobunaga's mother was a mysterious woman.
    Usage notes edit
    • This term conveys neither positive nor negative connotations. However, using it to describe someone the speaker knows personally is often considered lacking respect, where more polite forms like (かあ)さん (okāsan) are preferred.
    • This term is sometimes used in objective narrations, but for this purpose, (はは)(おや) (hahaoya) is more common.
    Coordinate terms edit
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    はわ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, the phonologically expected development. See etymology for haha above for details.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (はわ) (hawaはは (fafa)?

    1. (humble) mother
    Usage notes edit

    Obsolete in mainstream Japanese. May persist in dialects.

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Possibly an abbreviation of haha, or possibly the original form.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    () (ha

    1. (obsolete) mother
    Usage notes edit

    Not found in isolation, only found in compounds. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese.

    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 4 edit

    Kanji in this term
    あも
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Already falling into disuse by the writing of the Man'yōshū in 759, where it is only found in pieces written in eastern dialects.[1] Possibly cognate with Korean 엄마 (eomma, mother), 어머니 (eomeoni, mother).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (あも) (amo

    1. (obsolete) mother
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 5 edit

    Kanji in this term
    おも
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Appears to be an alteration from amo above.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (おも) (omo

    1. (obsolete) mother
    2. a woman who breastfeeds and raises a child in place of a parent: a wet nurse
    Synonyms edit
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 6 edit

    Kanji in this term
    かか
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Unknown. One theory holds that this is a corrupted and abbreviated form of 御方様 (okatasama), a term to refer to or address someone else's wife (now extremely formal, but much more everyday in the Edo period), possibly influenced by children's speech:

    /okatasama//katasama//kakasama//kaka/

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (かか) (kaka

    1. (childish) mommy, mummy
      • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 71:
        Caca. カカ (かか) Faua (母)に同じ. 母. これは子供の言葉である. また、尊敬すべき婦人、あるいは、年長で一家の主婦のような婦人の意に取られる.
        (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    2. (obsolete) wife
      Seen in the Edo period among the lower socioeconomic classes. Used to refer both to one's own wife when talking to others, and to refer to someone else's wife.[1]
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 7 edit

    Kanji in this term
    かあ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Alteration of kaka[1]: /kaka//-kka//kaː/

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (かあ) (

    1. mother
    Usage notes edit

    Almost never seen in isolation. Most commonly seen with honorific prefix o- and honorific suffix -san, as (かあ)さん (okāsan).

    Derived terms edit

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC muwX).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 무ᇢ〯 (Yale: mwǔw)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 어〮미〮 (Yale: émí) 모〯 (Yale: mwǒ)

    Pronunciation edit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [mo̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 어미 (eomi mo))

    1. Hanja form? of (mother).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Old Japanese edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC muwX).

    Phonogram edit

    (mo2)

    1. Denotes phonographic syllable mo2.

    Further reading edit

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: mẫu[1][2]
    : Nôm readings: mẫu[1][2][3][4], mẹ[5]

    1. chữ Hán form of mẫu (mother).

    References edit