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See also: , , and 𫶧
U+5DDD, 川
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5DDD

[U+5DDC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5DDE]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 47, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 中中中 (LLL), four-corner 22000, composition丿)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 323, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8673
  • Dae Jaweon: page 624, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 32, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5DDD

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms
 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰjon
*kʰjons
*kʰuːn
*sɢljun
*sɢljun
*sɢljun, *ɢljun
*kljuns, *kʷeːnʔ
*ɢljuns
*qʰuns

Pictogram (象形) – compare (OC *qʰʷljilʔ).

EtymologyEdit

The Middle and Old Chinese reconstruction of this word is phonologically problematic (STEDT):

Schuessler (2007) relates this word to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river; valley), whence (OC *kroːŋ, “river”), (OC *kloːɡ, “valley”), Tibetan ཀླུང (klung, river), Burmese ချောင်း (hkyaung:, stream). STEDT notes that this does not account for the *-n coda.

STEDT instead compares it to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-t(w)əj-n ~ *m-ti-s (water; fluid; liquid; river; soak; spit), whence (OC *tʰiːlʔ, “tears”), Proto-Kuki-Chin *tuj (water; fluid; liquid), Chepang तीः (water; rain; river); this depends on a reconstruction with a dental initial and requires positing an *‑n suffix not present in Tibeto-Burman languages.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • chhoan - literary;
  • chhng/chhuiⁿ - vernacular (only used in 尻川).
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: cuang1 / cuêng1 / ceng1
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: tshuang / tshueng / tshṳng
    • Sinological IPA (key): /t͡sʰuaŋ³³/, /t͡sʰueŋ³³/, /t͡sʰɯŋ³³/
Note:
  • cuang1/cuêng1 - literary (cuêng1 - Chaozhou);
  • ceng1 - vernacular (only used in 尻川).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (24)
    Final () (78)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕʰiuᴇn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕʰʷiɛn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕʰjuæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /cʰwian/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕʰiuɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕʰĭwɛn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕʰi̯wɛn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chuān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chuān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyhwen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*t.l̥u[n]/ (MC -jwen is irregular)
    English stream, river

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1628
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    穿
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰjon/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. river; stream; brook
    2. Synonym of (cuān, “to boil food for a short time in boiled water”).
    3. Short for 四川 (Sìchuān, “Sichuan Province, China”).
    4. source (of a river)
    5. road
    6. plain
    7. Alternative form of 穿 (chuān).
    8. A surname​.

    See alsoEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. river

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Old Japanese kapa[1] from Proto-Japonic *kapa[2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かわ, rōmaji kawa, historical hiragana かは)

    1. river, stream, brook

    SynonymsEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana かわ, rōmaji -kawa, historical hiragana かは)

    1. the ... river, used in named of rivers or streams

    (hiragana がわ, rōmaji -gawa, historical hiragana がは)

    1. the ... river

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ Old Japanese kapa in Oxford-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese
    2. ^ Stewart A. Curry. (2004) Small linguistics: phonological history and lexical loans in Nakijin dialect Okinawan. http://hdl.handle.net/10125/11526
    3. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (nae cheon))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (xuyên, xiên)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.