See also: , , and 𫶧
U+5DDD, 川
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5DDD

[U+5DDC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5DDE]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

(radical 47, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 中中中 (LLL), four-corner 22000, composition丿丨)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 323, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8673
  • Dae Jaweon: page 624, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 32, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5DDD

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Pictogram (象形) – compare (OC *qʰʷljilʔ).

EtymologyEdit

The Middle and Old Chinese reconstruction of this word is phonologically problematic (STEDT):

Schuessler (2007) relates this word to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river; valley), whence (OC *kroːŋ, “river”), (OC *kloːɡ, “valley”), Tibetan ཀླུང (klung, river), Burmese ချောင်း (hkyaung:, stream). STEDT notes that this does not account for the *-n coda.

STEDT instead compares it to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-t(w)əj-n ~ *m-ti-s (water; fluid; liquid; river; soak; spit), whence (OC *tʰiːlʔ, “tears”), Proto-Kuki-Chin *tuj (water; fluid; liquid), Chepang तीः (water; rain; river); this depends on a reconstruction with a dental initial and requires positing an *‑n suffix not present in Tibeto-Burman languages.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • chhoan - literary;
  • chhng/chhuiⁿ - vernacular (only used in 尻川).
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: cuang1 / cuêng1 / ceng1
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: tshuang / tshueng / tshṳng
    • Sinological IPA (key): /t͡sʰuaŋ³³/, /t͡sʰueŋ³³/, /t͡sʰɯŋ³³/
Note:
  • cuang1/cuêng1 - literary (cuêng1 - Chaozhou);
  • ceng1 - vernacular (only used in 尻川).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (24)
    Final () (78)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕʰiuᴇn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕʰʷiɛn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕʰjuæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /cʰwian/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕʰiuɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕʰĭwɛn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕʰi̯wɛn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chuān
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    cyun1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chuān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyhwen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*t.l̥u[n]/ (MC -jwen is irregular)
    English stream, river

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1628
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    穿
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰjon/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. river; stream; brook
    2. Synonym of (cuān, “to boil food for a short time in boiled water”).
    3. Short for 四川 (Sìchuān, “Sichuan Province, China”).
    4. source (of a river)
    5. road
    6. plain
    7. Alternative form of 穿 (chuān).
    8. (Internet slang) Short for 川普 (Chuānpǔ, “Donald Trump”).
        ―  tǐngchuān  ―  to support Donald Trump
        ―  chuānfěn  ―  Trumpster
    9. A surname​.

    See alsoEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. river

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term
    かわ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    From Old Japanese kapa[1] from Proto-Japonic *kapa[2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (かわ) (kawaかは (kafa)?

    1. river, stream, brook

    SynonymsEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ Old Japanese kapa in Oxford-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese
    2. ^ Stewart A. Curry. (2004) Small linguistics: phonological history and lexical loans in Nakijin dialect Okinawan. http://hdl.handle.net/10125/11526
    3. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕʰiuᴇn).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᄎᆑᆫ (Yale: chyyèn)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 내〯 (Yale: nǎy) (Yale: chyèn)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (nae cheon))

    1. Hanja form? of (river; stream).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: xuyên

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.