U+6CB3, 河
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6CB3

[U+6CB2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6CB4]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 85, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 水一弓口 (EMNR), four-corner 31120, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 613, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30890
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1006, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1582, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6CB3

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡaːl): semantic  (water) + phonetic  (OC *kʰaːlʔ).

EtymologyEdit

Originally particularly used for the Yellow River, with other rivers known as (OC *qʰʷljilʔ). Later extended generally as a word for rivers in northern China but the influence of (OC *kroːŋ, “Yangtze River; river in southern China”) has meant that modern usage tends to favor it for shorter rivers and creeks except in historical cases.

External etymology uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed:

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xɤ³⁵/
Harbin /xɤ²⁴/
Tianjin /xɤ⁴⁵/
Jinan /xə⁴²/
Qingdao /xə⁴²/
/xuə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xɤ⁴²/
Xi'an /xuo²⁴/
Xining /xu²⁴/
Yinchuan /xə⁵³/
Lanzhou /xə⁵³/
Ürümqi /xɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /xuo²¹³/
Chengdu /xo³¹/
Guiyang /xo²¹/
Kunming /xo³¹/
Nanjing /xo²⁴/
Hefei /xʊ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xɤ¹¹/
Pingyao /xɔ¹³/
/xei¹³/
Hohhot /xɤ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /vu²³/
Suzhou /ɦəu¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦo²¹³/
Wenzhou /vu³¹/
Hui Shexian /xo⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xo⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /xo¹³/
Xiangtan /ɦo¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ho²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /ho¹¹/
Taoyuan /ho¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔ²¹/
Nanning /hɔ²¹/
Hong Kong /hɔ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ho³⁵/
/o³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /o⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ho⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ho³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (94)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦa/
Li
Rong
/ɣɑ/
Wang
Li
/ɣɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ha ›
Old
Chinese
/*[C.ɡ]ˁaj/
English river

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7459
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡaːl/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Yellow River, Huang He
    Synonym: 黃河黄河 (Huáng Hé)
    1. (Chinese mythology) Hebo; the god of the Yellow River
    2. (Chinese mythology) Yellow River's Map; the plan of the Yellow River (mystic diagram said to have been supernaturally revealed)
  2. (by extension) river, especially a smaller river, creek, or stream, as distinguished from and
      ―  liú  ―  river
      ―  xiǎo   ―  small river, stream
  3. streamside; riverside
  4. (figuratively) Milky Way
  5. (chiefly Cantonese) Short for 河粉 (héfěn).
    乾炒牛 / 干炒牛 [Cantonese]  ―  gon1 caau2 ngau4 ho4-2 [Jyutping]  ―  beef chow fun
  6. A surname​: He; Ho

SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. river

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
かわ
Grade: 5
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
かわ1
[noun] river, stream, brook
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on’yomi

AffixEdit

() (ka

  1. river

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
ホー
Grade: 5
Irregular

From Chinese . The pronunciation is most similar to Cantonese /hɔː²¹/, although most Japanese mahjong terminology is taken from early 20th Century Mandarin.

NounEdit

(ホー) (

  1. (mahjong) river: a player's discard pile

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun (mul ha))

  1. Hanja form? of (river).

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Việt readings: ((hàn)(ca)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
: Nôm readings: [1][2][4][6]

  1. Hán tự form of (river).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit