U+6CB3, 河
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6CB3

[U+6CB2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6CB4]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 85, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 水一弓口 (EMNR), four-corner 31120, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 613, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30890
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1006, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1582, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6CB3

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𢀎

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡaːl): semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *kʰaːlʔ).

EtymologyEdit

Originally particularly used for the Yellow River, with other rivers known as (OC *qʰʷljilʔ). Later extended generally as a word for rivers in northern China but the influence of (OC *kroːŋ, “Yangtze River; river in southern China”) has meant that modern usage tends to favor it for shorter rivers and creeks except in historical cases.

External etymology uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed:

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Jinjiang:
    • ô - vernacular;
    • hô - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xɤ³⁵/
    Harbin /xɤ²⁴/
    Tianjin /xɤ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /xə⁴²/
    Qingdao /xə⁴²/
    /xuə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xɤ⁴²/
    Xi'an /xuo²⁴/
    Xining /xu²⁴/
    Yinchuan /xə⁵³/
    Lanzhou /xə⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xɤ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xuo²¹³/
    Chengdu /xo³¹/
    Guiyang /xo²¹/
    Kunming /xo³¹/
    Nanjing /xo²⁴/
    Hefei /xʊ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xɤ¹¹/
    Pingyao /xɔ¹³/
    /xei¹³/
    Hohhot /xɤ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /vu²³/
    Suzhou /ɦəu¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦo²¹³/
    Wenzhou /vu³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xo⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /xo⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /xo¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɦo¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ho²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /ho¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ho¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔ²¹/
    Nanning /hɔ²¹/
    Hong Kong /hɔ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ho³⁵/
    /o³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /o⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ho⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ho³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦa/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ho4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ha ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[C.ɡ]ˁaj/
    English river

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7459
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡaːl/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Yellow River, Huang He
      Synonym: 黃河黄河 (Huáng Hé)
      1. (Chinese mythology) Hebo; the god of the Yellow River
      2. (Chinese mythology) Yellow River's Map; the plan of the Yellow River (mystic diagram said to have been supernaturally revealed)
    2. (by extension) river, especially a smaller river, creek, or stream, as distinguished from and (Classifier: m)
        ―  liú  ―  river
        ―  xiǎo   ―  small river, stream
    3. streamside; riverside
    4. (figuratively) Milky Way
    5. (chiefly Cantonese) Short for 河粉 (héfěn).
      乾炒牛 / 干炒牛 [Cantonese]  ―  gon1 caau2 ngau4 ho4-2 [Jyutping]  ―  beef chow fun
    6. A surname​.: He; Ho

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Wutunhua: xhe

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. river

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かわ
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    かわ1
    [noun] river, stream, brook
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    AffixEdit

    () (ka

    1. river

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ホー
    Grade: 5
    Irregular

    From Chinese . The pronunciation is most similar to Cantonese /hɔː²¹/, although most Japanese mahjong terminology is taken from early 20th Century Mandarin.

    NounEdit

    (ホー) (

    1. (mahjong) river: a player's discard pile

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɑ).

    Historical readings

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (mul ha))

    1. Hanja form? of (river).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: ((hàn)(ca)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: [1][2][4][6]

    1. Hán tự form of (river).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit