Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 85 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 水一弓口 (EMNR), four-corner 31120, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 613, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17245
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1006, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1582, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6CB3

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡaːl): semantic  + phonetic  ‎(OC *kʰaːlʔ).

EtymologyEdit

“River (of the North); Yellow River”.

Various hypotheses have been proposed:

Contrast with (OC *kroːŋ, “river (of the South)”), (OC *kʰjon, “river”).

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xɤ³⁵/
Harbin /xɤ²⁴/
Tianjin /xɤ⁴⁵/
Jinan /xə⁴²/
Qingdao /xə⁴²/
/xuə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xɤ⁴²/
Xi'an /xuo²⁴/
Xining /xu²⁴/
Yinchuan /xə⁵³/
Lanzhou /xə⁵³/
Ürümqi /xɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /xuo²¹³/
Chengdu /xo³¹/
Guiyang /xo²¹/
Kunming /xo³¹/
Nanjing /xo²⁴/
Hefei /xʊ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xɤ¹¹/
Pingyao /xɔ¹³/
/xei¹³/
Hohhot /xɤ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /vu²³/
Suzhou /ɦəu¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦo²¹³/
Wenzhou /vu³¹/
Hui Shexian /xo⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xo⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /xo¹³/
Xiangtan /ɦo¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ho²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /ho¹¹/
Taoyuan /ho¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔ²¹/
Nanning /hɔ²¹/
Hong Kong /hɔ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ho³⁵/
/o³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /o⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ho⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ho³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (94)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦa/
Li
Rong
/ɣɑ/
Wang
Li
/ɣɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ha ›
Old
Chinese
/*[C.ɡ]ˤaj/
English river

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7459
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡaːl/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. river   (Classifier: m; m)
      ―  liú  ―  river
      ―  xiǎo  ―  small river, stream
  2. stream; creek
  3. (literary) Yellow River
  4. (literary) Milky Way
  5. A surname​: He

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. river

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Alternative formsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(ha) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer ha, Yale ha)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

NounEdit

(, nghiệp, xương)

  1. river
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