U+6C5F, 江
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C5F

[U+6C5E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C60]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

Stroke order
 

(Kangxi radical 85, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 水一 (EM), four-corner 31110, composition )

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 606, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17140
  • Dae Jaweon: page 999, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1551, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6C5F

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𬇔
𣲅
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Classical)
  • (Gan)
  • (Hakka)

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States
Bronze inscriptions
 

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kroːŋ) : semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *koːŋ).

Etymology 1 edit

"Yangtze River"

Borrowed from a substrate Austroasiatic language as Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river, valley); compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *ruŋ ~ ruuŋ ~ ruəŋ (river) > Proto-Vietic *k-roːŋ (river) (Vietnamese sông), Mon ကြုၚ် (krɜŋ, small river, creek).

Derivative: (OC *kroːŋʔ, *ɡloːŋs, “harbour”).

Pronunciation edit


Note: gĕ̤ng - refers to rivers, gŏng - used in place names or as a surname.
Note: 1kaan - vernacular and common literary, 1jian - rare literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕiaŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕiɑŋ²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕiaŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕiɔ̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕiɑ̃³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕiã̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /t͡ɕiaŋ³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕiɑ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕiɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kɑ̃⁵³/
/t͡ɕiã⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡ɕiɑ̃⁵⁵/
/kɑ̃⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕiɑŋ³³/
Wenzhou /kuɔ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕia³¹/ ~淮
/ka³¹/ 姓~
Tunxi /kau¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕian³³/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕian³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɔŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /koŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /koŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /kaŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /køyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /kɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /koŋ²³/
/kiaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (9)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter kaewng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠʌŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚɔŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɔŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨwŋ/
Li
Rong
/kɔŋ/
Wang
Li
/kɔŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɔŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiāng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gong1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kæwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁroŋ/
English (Yangzi) river

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3995
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kroːŋ/

Definitions edit

  1. Yangtze River
  2. (by extension) river (Classifier: )
  3. () (telegraphy) the third day of a month
  4. a surname: Jiang (mainland China), Chiang (Taiwan), Kong (Hong Kong), Kiang (Old fashion)
      ―  Jiāng Zémín  ―  Jiang Zemin
Usage notes edit

The word that referred to a body of flowing water such as stream, creek or river was represented in early Chinese with (shuǐ), a pictograph showing water flowing between two banks, similar to the form of the character (chuān).

In early times, specialized characters were created to represent words that described particular bodies of water. These words often contain the water radical (), which was originally written in the same way that the original form of was written.

In early texts, the term () usually referred directly to the 黃河黄河 (Huáng Hé, “Yellow River”). Over time, became used as a generalized term for rivers that were bigger than a stream. The term is sometimes associated with an 'older' body of flowing water that has a smaller volume. Similarly, was originally the name of the Yangtze River which is a relatively larger body of flowing water. became the standard bearer for a slightly differentiated category of river. It was then applied broadly as a generic term.

Among Chinese users, there are commonly held beliefs about the differences between these near synonyms that may not be reflected in an ordinary dictionary. are often thought of as the larger rivers that are usually in southern China, while are usually rivers with comparatively lesser volume or that are artificial and are usually found in northern China (and may be considered culturally 'older'). These two terms are often the subject of attempts at comparisons. Terms for smaller bodies of flowing water include: (chuān) which are usually mid-sized or relatively small rivers, () and (liú) which are creeks, streams, brooks, and gullies, and (shuǐ) which are streams (but can also be medium-sized tributary rivers like the Han River (漢水汉水 (Hànshuǐ)). There are many exceptions to these patterns owing to inconsistent usage of the relevant terms in different forms of Chinese and English over time, and also due to cultural attitudes about proper usage of the terms.

See also edit

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (こう) ()
  • Korean: 강(江) (gang)
  • Vietnamese: giang ()

Etymology 2 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“cowpea”).
(This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. creek
  2. inlet
  3. bay

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

/je//e/

From Old Japanese. The ye pronunciation merged with e in Early Middle Japanese. The merged sound was ye until the Edo period, which is found in Yedo, yen and Yebisu.

This term was so representative of the ye reading that it lent its shape to the hentaigana 𛀁 (ye).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

() (e

  1. inlet, bay
  2. (archaic, possibly obsolete) (general term for a large body of water)
    1. sea
    2. large river
    3. lake
Usage notes edit

Although (e) was sometimes used generically for a large body of water, it was most often used to indicate the portion of that body of water that extended inland.[2]

Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit

Proper noun edit

() (E

  1. a surname

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: S
kan’on

/kau//kɔː//koː/

From Middle Chinese (MC kaewng).

The 漢音 (kan'on) reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(こう) (かう (kau)?

  1. (archaic) large river

Proper noun edit

(こう) (かう (kau)?

  1. short for 長江 (Chōkō): the Yangtze River
  2. old name for 琵琶湖 (Biwa-ko): Lake Biwa
  3. a surname
  4. a unisex given name
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Various nanori readings.

Pronunciation edit

Proper noun edit

(ごう) (

  1. a surname
  2. a unisex given name

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
(ateji)
kun’yomi

Particle edit

() (e

  1. (dated) Alternative spelling of (e, to, towards)
    • 1977, 週刊文春1977年1月13日号
      (ない)(とう)(くに)()より()(そら)ひばり(さん)()
      Naitō Kunio yori Misora Hibari san e
      From Kunio Naito to dear Ms. Hibari Misora

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
𛀁
Grade: S
(ateji)
kun’yomi

Particle edit

  1. (obsolete) Identical in meaning to the particle , but used only after pronunciations of , 𛀁, and . (Can we verify(+) this sense?)

References edit

  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC kaewng). Recorded as Middle Korean 가ᇰ (kang) (Yale: kang) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (gang gang))

  1. Hanja form? of (river).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: giang, giăng, nhăng, gianh

  1. (only in compounds) river
  2. chữ Hán form of Giang (a surname from Chinese.).