Open main menu

Wiktionary β

U+6C5F, 江
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C5F

[U+6C5E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C60]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 85 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 水一 (EM), four-corner 31110, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 606, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17140
  • Dae Jaweon: page 999, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1551, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6C5F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kroːŋ, *ɡroːŋ
*kluːmʔ, *koːŋ
*kluːmʔ
*ŋr'oːŋ, *kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *qʰroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ
*kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoŋ, *ɡoŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*qʰroːŋ, *qʰoːŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*ɡroːŋ
*ɡroːŋʔ
*ɡ·roːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ, *qʰoːŋ, *ɡoːŋ
*koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋs
*koːŋs
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋʔ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋs
*qʰoːŋ
*qʰoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ, *ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*kʰoŋ, *qʰoŋ
*kʰoŋʔ, *kʰoŋs
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kroːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Etymology 1Edit

Yangtze River”.

Borrowed from a substrate Mon-Khmer language as Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river, valley); compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *ruŋ ~ ruuŋ ~ ruəŋ (river) > Proto-Vietic *k-roːŋ (river) (Vietnamese sông), Mon ကြုၚ် (krɜŋ, small river, creek).

Derivative: (OC *kroːŋʔ, *ɡloːŋs, “harbour”).

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕiaŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕiɑŋ²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕiaŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕiɔ̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕiɑ̃³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕiã̠/
Nanjing /t͡ɕiaŋ³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕiɑ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕiɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kɑ̃⁵³/
/t͡ɕiã⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡ɕiɑ̃⁵⁵/
/kɑ̃⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕiɑŋ³³/
Wenzhou /kuɔ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕia³¹/ ~淮
/ka³¹/ 姓~
Tunxi /kau¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕian³³/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕian³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɔŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /koŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /koŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kaŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /køyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ²³/
/kiaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (9)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠʌŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚɔŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɔŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨwŋ/
Li
Rong
/kɔŋ/
Wang
Li
/kɔŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɔŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiāng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kæwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˤroŋ/
English (Yangzi) river

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3995
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kroːŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Yangtze River
  2. (by extension) river
  3. A surname​: Jiang (mainland China), Chiang (Taiwan), Kong (Hong Kong)
Usage notesEdit

The original Chinese word for “river” was (shuǐ), literally “water”. In time, the proper name () was used as a word for rivers and its original bearer distinguished as the 黃河黄河 (Huáng Hé, “Yellow River”). Similarly, was originally the name of the Yangtze River and then applied broadly as a generic word for rivers. In modern Chinese, are usually the larger rivers, are smaller rivers or creeks, and are brooks and streams; but there are many exceptions to this general pattern owing to historical reasons.

See alsoEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
Notes:

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. creek
  2. inlet
  3. bay

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

/je//e/

From Old Japanese. The ye pronunciation gradually dropped out in Early Middle Japanese, persisting in some dialects and specific terms. For instance, see   Yebisu on Wikipedia.Wikipedia

This term was so representative of the ye reading that it lent its shape to the hentaigana 𛀁 (ye).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji e)

  1. inlet, bay
  2. (archaic, possibly obsolete) (general term for a large body of water)
    1. sea
    2. large river
    3. lake
Usage notesEdit

Although (e) was sometimes used generically for a large body of water, it was most often used to indicate the portion of that body of water that extended inland.[2]

SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji E)

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: S
on’yomi

/kau//kɔː//koː/

From Middle Chinese (MC kˠʌŋ).

The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana こう, rōmaji , historical hiragana かう)

  1. (archaic) large river

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana こう, rōmaji , historical hiragana かう)

  1. short for 長江 (Chōkō): the Yangtze River
  2. old name for 琵琶湖 (Biwa-ko): Lake Biwa
  3. a surname
  4. a unisex given name
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Various nanori readings.

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana ごう, rōmaji )

  1. a surname
  2. a unisex given name

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(gang) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer kang, Yale kang)

  1. river

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(giang, giăng, nhăng, gianh)

  1. (only in compounds) river