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U+6C5F, 江
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C5F

[U+6C5E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C60]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 85, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 水一 (EM), four-corner 31110, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 606, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17140
  • Dae Jaweon: page 999, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1551, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6C5F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kroːŋ, *ɡroːŋ
*kluːmʔ, *koːŋ
*kluːmʔ
*ŋr'oːŋ, *kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *qʰroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ
*kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoŋ, *ɡoŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*qʰroːŋ, *qʰoːŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*ɡroːŋʔ
*ɡ·roːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ, *qʰoːŋ, *ɡoːŋ
*koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋs
*koːŋs
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋʔ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋs
*qʰoːŋ
*qʰoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ, *ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*kʰoŋ, *qʰoŋ
*kʰoŋʔ, *kʰoŋs
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kroːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Etymology 1Edit

"Yangtze River"

Borrowed from a substrate Mon-Khmer language as Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river, valley); compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *ruŋ ~ ruuŋ ~ ruəŋ (river) > Proto-Vietic *k-roːŋ (river) (Vietnamese sông), Mon ကြုၚ် (krɜŋ, small river, creek).

Derivative: (OC *kroːŋʔ, *ɡloːŋs, “harbour”).

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕiaŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕiɑŋ²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕiaŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕiɔ̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕiɑ̃³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕiã̠/
Nanjing /t͡ɕiaŋ³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕiɑ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕiɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kɑ̃⁵³/
/t͡ɕiã⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡ɕiɑ̃⁵⁵/
/kɑ̃⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕiɑŋ³³/
Wenzhou /kuɔ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕia³¹/ ~淮
/ka³¹/ 姓~
Tunxi /kau¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕian³³/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕian³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɔŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /koŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /koŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kaŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /køyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ²³/
/kiaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (9)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠʌŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚɔŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɔŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨwŋ/
Li
Rong
/kɔŋ/
Wang
Li
/kɔŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɔŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiāng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kæwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁroŋ/
English (Yangzi) river

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3995
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kroːŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Yangtze River
  2. (by extension) river
  3. A surname​: Jiang (mainland China), Chiang (Taiwan), Kong (Hong Kong)
Usage notesEdit

The word that referred to a body of flowing water such as stream, creek or river was represented in early Chinese with (shuǐ), a pictograph showing water flowing between two banks, similar to the form of the character (chuān).

In early times, specialized characters were created to represent words that described particular bodies of water. These words often contain the water radical (), which was originally written in the same way that the original form of was written.

In early texts, the term () usually referred directly to the 黃河黄河 (Huáng Hé, “Yellow River”). Over time, became used as a generalized term for rivers that were bigger than a stream. The term is sometimes associated with an 'older' body of flowing water that has a smaller volume. Similarly, was originally the name of the Yangtze River which is a relatively larger body of flowing water. became the standard bearer for a slightly differentiated category of river. It was then applied broadly as a generic term.

Among Chinese users, there are commonly held beliefs about the differences between these near synonyms that may not be reflected in an ordinary dictionary. are often thought of as the larger rivers that are usually in southern China, while are usually rivers with comparatively lesser volume or that are artificial and are usually found in northern China (and may be considered culturally 'older'). These two terms are often the subject of attempts at comparisons. Terms for smaller bodies of flowing water include: (chuān) which are usually mid-sized or relatively small rivers, () and (liú) which are creeks, streams, brooks, and gullies, and (shuǐ) which are streams (but can also be medium-sized tributary rivers like the Han River (漢水汉水 (Hànshuǐ)). There are many exceptions to these patterns owing inconsistent usage of the relevant terms in different forms of Chinese and English over time, and also due to cultural attitudes about proper usage of the terms.

See alsoEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“cowpea”).
(This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
Notes:

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. creek
  2. inlet
  3. bay

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

/je//e/

From Old Japanese. The ye pronunciation merged with e in Early Middle Japanese. The merged sound was ye until the Edo period, which is found in Yedo, yen and Yebisu.

This term was so representative of the ye reading that it lent its shape to the hentaigana 𛀁 (ye).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji e)

  1. inlet, bay
  2. (archaic, possibly obsolete) (general term for a large body of water)
    1. sea
    2. large river
    3. lake
Usage notesEdit

Although (e) was sometimes used generically for a large body of water, it was most often used to indicate the portion of that body of water that extended inland.[2]

SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji E)

  1. a surname

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: S
kan’on

/kau//kɔː//koː/

From Middle Chinese (MC kˠʌŋ).

The 漢音 (kan'on) reading, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana こう, rōmaji , historical hiragana かう)

  1. (archaic) large river

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana こう, rōmaji , historical hiragana かう)

  1. short for 長江 (Chōkō): the Yangtze River
  2. old name for 琵琶湖 (Biwa-ko): Lake Biwa
  3. a surname
  4. a unisex given name
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Various nanori readings.

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana ごう, rōmaji )

  1. a surname
  2. a unisex given name

Etymology 4Edit

ParticleEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji e)

  1. (dated) Alternative spelling of (e, to, towards)
    • 1977, 週刊文春1977年1月13日号
      内藤 (ないとう)国雄 (くにお)より美空 (みそら)ひばり (さん) ()
      Naitō Kunio yori Misora Hibari san e
      From Kunio Naito to dear Ms. Hibari Misora

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun (gang gang))

  1. river

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(giang, giăng, nhăng, gianh)

  1. (only in compounds) river