See also: , , , 𠂌, , , , and
U+4E8E, 于
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E8E

[U+4E8D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E8F]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 7, +1, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一木 (MD), four-corner 10400, composition 𬺰 or or )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 86, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 252
  • Dae Jaweon: page 177, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 4, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E8E

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形). Two possibilities for the object of representation are:

  • An ancient wind instrument; early form of (OC *ɢʷa). This view is supported by mainstream palaeography.
  • Exhaled air; early form of (OC *qʰʷa, *ɢʷas, “to sigh”). Shuowen considers it to be an ideogrammic compound (會意会意): (flat stream of air) + (to exhale). Compare , , .

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-wa-ŋ (to go; to come). Related to (OC *ɢʷaŋ, “to go to, to, towards”). Merged with (OC *qaː, *qa) by the classical times. It is now used as the simplified form in Mainland China.

Pronunciation edit


Note: jyu4 - dated.

BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ hju ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷ(r)a/
English go; at

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15706
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷa/
Notes
For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“in; at; on; with; on; etc.”).
(This character, , is the simplified and variant traditional form of ).
Notes:

Etymology 2 edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms ancient
ancient
ancient

Pronunciation edit


Note: jyu4 - dated.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (35)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter hju
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɨo/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦio/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣio/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦuə̆/
Li
Rong
/ɣio/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jyu4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ hju › ‹ hju ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷ(r)a/ /*ɦʷa/ (< *ɢʷ(r)a)
English go; at 單于 chányú: Xiōngnú ruler (W. Hàn)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15706
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷa/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. a surname
      ―  Jìn  ―  Yu Jin (Chinese military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han dynasty)
  2. Used in several names and proper nouns.
      ―  chán  ―  chief of the Xiongnu; a Chinese surname
      ―  Chún  ―  a Chinese surname

Usage notes edit

The surname is to be distinguished from another surname . The latter is never simplified if the character is used for surname.

Etymology 3 edit

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. Alternative form of (, large; vast; wide)

Etymology 4 edit

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. Alternative form of (interjection).Only used in 于嗟 and 于咨.

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings edit

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eum (u))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: vu, vo,

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References edit