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LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *gīˀwas[1], from Proto-Indo-European *gʷiwós, *gʷih₃wós (living, alive), from *gʷey-, *gʷī- (alive; to live) (whence also dzīt (to heal); q.v.) with a suffix -wo. Cognates include Lithuanian gývas, Old Prussian gijwans, geiwans (alive (acc. pl.)), Sudovian giwatti (to live) (< *gīvati), Proto-Slavic *živъ (Old Church Slavonic живъ (živŭ), Russian жив (živ)), Proto-Germanic *kwikwaz (either with a different suffix -k(w)o- or with h₃w > kw strengthening; Gothic 𐌵𐌹𐌿𐍃 (qius), English quick, Swedish kvick (fast), German keck (sassy, cheeky)), Sanskrit जीव (jīva), Latin vīvus (< *gʷiwós), Ancient Greek βίος (bíos, life), Proto-Celtic *biwos (Irish beo (alive), bia (food), Welsh byw).[2]

PronunciationEdit

(file)

AdjectiveEdit

dzīvs (definite dzīvais, comparative dzīvāks, superlative visdzīvākais, adverb dzīvi)

  1. (of people, animals) living, alive (that which lives)
    dzīva būtneliving being
    dzīvs organismsliving organism
    dzīvā dabaliving nature (= the animal and vegetal kingdoms)
    māte viņam ir dzīvahis mother is alive
    pirmajā brīdī, kad uzzināju, ka Arturs dzīvs, man uzplūda tik daudz atmiņuat the very moment when I heard that Arturs (was) alive, so many memories surged back to me
  2. (of plants, their parts) living, alive
    dzīvi ziediliving flowers (i.e., natural, not artificial)
    kamēr augs ir dzīvs, saknes un stumbrs aug arvien lielāki un palielinās lapu skaitsas long as the plant is alive, the roots and the trunk grow larger and larger and the number of leaves increases
  3. (of body parts, their components) living, alive (not dead, still working)
    dzīva šūnaliving cell
    dzīvi audiliving tissues
    dzīvs zobsliving tooth
  4. (definite forms) the living (those who are alive)
    dzīvie un mirušiethe living and the dead
    atrasties starp dvīvajiemto be among the living
  5. lively, active, jolly (which quickly reacts to external stimuli; expressing such capacity of reaction)
    dzīvas acislively eyes
    dzīva sejas izteiksmelively facial expression
    siltumā un pie kārtīga ēdiena zēns kļuva dzīvāks un jautrākswith warmth and good food the boy became livelier and more cheerful
    Skārbis bija maza, sīka auguma, ļoti dzīvs un runātnīgsSkārbis was of small, petite size, very lively and talkative
    Pēteris kļuva runīgāks, gāja dzīvāku soliPēteris became more talkative (and) walked (with) livelier step(s)
  6. (of motion, traffic) bustling, intense, active, busy
    dzīva satiskmeintense, heavy traffic
    dzīva šosejafull, busy highway
    dzīva kustība uz ielāmintense movement on the streets
    tuvāk pilsētai ceļš kļuva dzīvāks; brauca tirdzinieki ar siena vezumiem un āboliemcloser to the city the road became busier; merchants rode with their carts full of hay and apples
  7. (of actions, events) lively, intense
    dzīvas sarunaslively conversation
    dzīva izrādelively show
    dzīva diskusija notika Arodbiedrību nama Kolonnu zālēa lively discussion took place in the Column hall of the House of Trade Unions
    ap vilcienu bija dzīva kņada: atbraucēji gandrīz visi bija kareivjiaround the train (there) was intense uproar: almost all arrivals were soldiers
  8. (of mental activities) lively, intense, strong, powerful
    dzīva iztēle, fantāzijalively imagination, fantasy
    dzīva intereselively, strong interest
  9. (of works of art, etc.) lively, expressive, intensive
    dzīva gleznaalive, expressive painting
    ilustrācijas kopā ar paskaidrojošo tekstu grāmatā ir ļoti dzīvasthe illustrations together with the explanatory text in the book are very alive, expressive
  10. (of imagined entities) living, lively (very similar to reality; very impressive)
    dzīvas atmiņaslively, intense, impressive memories
    šis bija viens no tiem briesmīgajiem sapņiem, kuri tik dzīvi un skaidri kā pati dzīvethis was one of those terrible dreams which are as alive and clear as life itself
  11. intact, untouched, safe; (of money) unspent; (of memories) well maintained
    nez vai jel mājas vairs būs dzīvaswho knows if the houses will still be alive (= intact, unharmed)
    pērnēja gada alga man vēl tāpat dzīvamy last year's salary is still as it were alive (= unspent)
    gadi ir aizgājuši, bet senā sajūta vēl vienmēr dzīvayears have passed, but the old feeling is still always alive
  12. (colloquial) such that there is a lot of it, without impurities, admixtures
    ēst dzīvus taukusto eat living (= pure) fat
    ēst dzīvu sālito eat living salt (i.e., to eat food with a lot of salt)
    dzīva nauda, balta naudaliving money, white money (both meaning “a lot of money”)

DeclensionEdit

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ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kim, Ronald (forth.), “The Phonology of Balto-Slavic”, in Jared S. Klein, Brian Joseph, and Matthias Fritz, editors, Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook of Language Comparison and the Reconstruction of Indo-European[1], Berlin: de Gruyter
  2. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “dzīvs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7