Albanian edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

je

  1. second-person singular present indicative of jam

Bassa edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

je

  1. jealousy
  2. a kind of lizard

References edit

Blagar edit

Noun edit

je

  1. canoe

References edit

Bourguignon edit

Alternative forms edit

  • i (normal form)

Etymology edit

The traditional form is i but je is found as early as in the first recorded texts in Bourguignon. However nowadays, it is rare to find it, most speakers saying i as it is a typical feature of Bourguignon.

Pronoun edit

je

  1. (rare) Alternative form of i

Related terms edit

Czech edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈjɛ]
  • (file)
  • Rhymes:

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *jь, *ja, *je, originally from Proto-Indo-European *eno-, *ono-, *no-.[cs 1]

Pronoun edit

je

  1. third-person plural accusative of on
  2. third-person plural accusative of ona
  3. third-person singular/plural accusative of ono
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Formerly jest, from Proto-Slavic *estь, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁es-.[cs 1]

Verb edit

je

  1. third-person singular present indicative of být

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Rejzek, Jiří (2007) Český etymologický slovník (in Czech), Version 1.0 edition, Prague: Leda

Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronoun edit

je

  1. subjective unstressed form of jij (you (singular))
    Wat doe je daar?What are you doing there?
  2. objective unstressed form of jij (you (singular))
    Ik doe dit wel voor je.I'll do this for you.
    Hoe gaat het met je? — Goed. En met jou?
    How are you? — I'm good. What about you?
  3. subjective unstressed form of jullie (you (plural), y'all)
    Wat doe je daar?What are you doing there?
  4. objective unstressed form of jullie (you (plural), y'all)
    Ik doe dit wel voor je.I'll do this for you.
  5. (indefinite personal pronoun, informal) one, people, you, someone, anyone; an unspecified individual or group of individuals (as subject or object)
    Je mag hier niet zwemmen.Swimming is not allowed here.
    In dat restaurant kun je heerlijk eten.There is great food to be had in that restaurant.
    • 1995 May 23, Marleen Barth, “'Politiek moet leren luisteren naar scholen' ['Politicians must learn to listen to schools']”, in Trouw[1], page 4:
      „Als je als directeur ondernemend van aard bent en je kunt goed leidinggeven, dan ben je natuurlijk wel gelukkig met meer vrijheid. Maar dat geldt voor veel directeuren niet.(...)"
      "If a headteacher is entrepreneurial by nature and if he or she is a good manager, they'll obviously be happy with more freedom. But this does not apply to many headteachers.(...)"
  6. (personal pronoun, colloquial) I, one; used to talk about oneself indirectly, especially about feelings or personal experiences
    Je gaat wel even een moeilijk periode door, maar je zoekt toch naar een oplossing.I did go through a difficult period, but I looked for a solution nonetheless.
    • 1994 December 31, Wang An Oe, “'Voor een paar tientjes was ik ineens directeur' ['For a couple of tenners, I suddenly became a CEO']”, in Leeuwarder Courant[2], page 17:
      Het echtpaar Duijm uit Spijkenisse toog zo'n vier maanden geleden naar de Kamer van Koophandel omdat meneer en mevrouw wel wat zagen in een strijkservice. (...) „Voor ƒ 58 inschrijfgeld waren we plotseling directeur en directrice. Na afloop voel je weer de frisse lucht buiten en dan denk je wel even: waar zijn we aan begonnen?"
      About four months ago, Mr and Mrs Duijm from Spijkenisse went to the Chamber of Commerce because the couple saw business potential for an ironing service. (...) "For a ƒ58 registration fee, we were suddenly CEOs. Afterwards, I felt the fresh outside air again and at that moment I did think to myself: what did we get ourselves into?"
    • 2022 October 31, Gummbah, De Volkskrant[3] (cartoon), retrieved 23 November 2022:
      Hoe gaat het nou?
      Slecht !... Ja, je hebt toch net je moeder begraven, hè
      How are things?
      Bad! After all, I just buried my mother, right?
Usage notes edit
  • When je is the unstressed subjective form of jullie, it is construed with a singular verb. Compare:
Het is gevaarlijk, maar jullie moeten weten wat je doet.
It’s dangerous, but you must decide what you’re doing.
  • In informal language, je often replaces jij, jou, and jouw, with those forms used for emphasis or contrast.
Heb je aan je maat gevraagd of ’ie z’n boor voor je kan meenemen? — Ja, hij zei dat ik ’m daarna aan jou mag geven zodat jij ’m voor jouw klusje kunt gebruiken.
Did you ask your mate to bring his drill for you? — Yes, he said I can give it to you afterwards so you can use it for your project.
Inflection edit
Descendants edit
  • Jersey Dutch: je

Etymology 2 edit

Determiner edit

je (second person, possessive)

  1. possessive unstressed form of jij (you (singular)): your (singular)
    Neem je boek en maak die oefening.Take your book and do that exercise.
  2. possessive unstressed form of jullie (you (plural), y'all): your (plural), y'all's
    Neem je boeken en maak die oefening.Take your books and do that exercise.
Inflection edit

Etymology 3 edit

Pronoun edit

je (second person, reflexive)

  1. reflexive of jij (you (singular)): yourself
    Heb je je gewassen?Did you wash yourself?
  2. reflexive of jullie (you (plural), y'all): yourselves
    Hebben jullie je goed voorbereid?Have you all prepared yourselves well?
Inflection edit

Esperanto edit

Etymology edit

From German je (ever, per).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

je

  1. An all-purpose preposition.

Usage notes edit

The preposition je can replace any other preposition and remain grammatically correct, albeit more ambiguous. It is usually clear what meaning is intended based on context.

It is most useful for prepositional phrases not involving a literal physical connection, and instead, the correct preposition in the source language is mandated by convention only:

"He bets on the horses." (He doesn't place his money on the physical body of the horse.)
"I typed it on the computer." (It was actually typed using the computer.)
"She'll be here in a minute." (She'll be here within or after a minute.)

Without context, Donu ĝin je mi could mean any of the following:

Donu ĝin je [al] mi. — “Give it to me.”
Donu ĝin je [el] mi. — “Give it from me.”
Donu ĝin je [kun] mi. — “Give it with me.”

Without context, La kato saltis je la tablon could mean any of the following:

La kato saltis je [sur] la tablon. — “The cat jumped onto the table.”
La kato saltis je [malsuper] la tablon. — “The cat jumped under the table.”
La kato saltis je [malantaŭ] la tablon. — “The cat jumped behind the table.”

Related terms edit

Franco-Provençal edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Vulgar Latin eo, from Latin ego.

Pronoun edit

je

  1. I (1SG subject pronoun)

References edit

  • je in DicoFranPro: Dictionnaire Français/Francoprovençal – on dicofranpro.llm.umontreal.ca

French edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old French je, jo, from Vulgar Latin , from Latin ego, from Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂. Near cognates include Portuguese eu, Spanish yo and Italian io. Further cognates include Ancient Greek ἐγώ (egṓ), Russian я (ja), English I, German ich, etc.

See cognates in regional languages in France: Angevin, Bourbonnais-Berrichon, Gallo, Lorrain, Norman, Orléanais, and Franco-Provençal je; Bourguignon je or i; Champenois ju; Franc-Comtois i; Picard ej; Poitevin-Saintongeais jhe; Occitan ieu (Gascon jo); Catalan jo; Corsican eo.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ʒə/
  • (informal) IPA(key): (before a voiced segment) /ʒ/, (before an unvoiced segment) /ʃ/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes:

Pronoun edit

je (first person singular, plural nous, object me, emphatic moi, possessive determiner mon)

  1. I

Usage notes edit

  • When several pronouns are included in the same sentence, it is considered impolite to say the pronoun je first; it must be the last one, and tu must be said after third persons (this applies also for toi and moi):
    • Nous irons, Rose, toi et moi.
      We will go, Rose, you and I.

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Further reading edit

Garo edit

Etymology edit

Likely borrowed from Bengali যেই (jei)

Pronoun edit

je

  1. that which
  2. whatever
  3. whoever

References edit

  • Burling, R. (2003) The Language of the Modhupur Mandi (Garo) Vol. II: The Lexicon[4], Bangladesh: University of Michigan, page 56

German edit

Etymology edit

Old High German io.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

je

  1. ever
    • 1930, Paul Joachimsen, Der Humanismus und die Entwicklung des deutschen Geistes, in: Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte, 8, page 467:
      Und nun kommt die Reformation selbst. Die größte geistige Umwälzung, die je ein Volk des Abendlandes erlebt hat.
      And now comes the Reformation itself. The largest spiritual upheaval that was ever experienced by a nation of the Occident.
  2. per
  3. (with “desto”, “umso” or (dated) “je) the
    je mehr, desto besserthe more the better
    je früher, umso besserthe sooner the better

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • je” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
  • Friedrich Kluge (1883), “je”, in , John Francis Davis, transl., Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, published 1891

Haitian Creole edit

Etymology edit

From earlier zye, from Saint Dominican Creole French z'yeu, from French les yeux (the eyes).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

je

  1. eye
    Alternative form: zye

Icelandic edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Shortening of Jesús (Jesus).

Interjection edit

je

  1. oh my!
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From English yeah.

Interjection edit

je

  1. (slang, dated) yeah (indicating enthusiastic appreciation, etc.)

Etymology 3 edit

Noun edit

je n (genitive singular jes, nominative plural je)

  1. (obsolete) Name of the letter J, j.
Declension edit
Synonyms edit
  • (name of J, j): joð

Ido edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

je (plural je-i)

  1. The name of the Latin script letter J/j.

See also edit

Igbo edit

Alternative forms edit

Verb edit

je

  1. go
  2. walk

Derived terms edit

Indonesian edit

Etymology edit

From Dutch jee. Doublet of ye. Represented Dutch-derived J (pronounced /j/, modern Y) before 1972.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈd͡ʒe/, [ˈd͡ʒe]

Noun edit

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter J/j.
  2. (pre-1947, 1947-1972) Superseded spelling of ye.

See also edit

Further reading edit

Jersey Dutch edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Dutch je.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

je

  1. you (second-person singular subjective personal pronoun)

Kari'na edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Cariban , *jô; compare Apalaí je, Trió je, Wayana je, Waiwai yo, Akawaio ö, Macushi ye, Pemon ye, Ye'kwana yedü, dedü, Yao (South America) hoieelii.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

je (possessed jery)

  1. tooth
  2. sharpness

References edit

  • Courtz, Hendrik (2008) A Carib grammar and dictionary[5], Toronto: Magoria Books, →ISBN, page 285
  • Ahlbrinck, Willem (1931), “ye”, in Encyclopaedie der Karaïben, Amsterdam: Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, page 548; republished as Willem Ahlbrinck, ; Doude van Herwijnen, transl., L'Encyclopédie des Caraïbes[6], Paris, 1956, page 537

Lashi edit

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

je

  1. more (comparative)

References edit

  • Hkaw Luk (2017) A grammatical sketch of Lacid[7], Chiang Mai: Payap University (master thesis)

Lower Sorbian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • nje (after a preposition)

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

je

  1. accusative of wóni

Malay edit

Etymology 1 edit

Phonetic spelling of ja in Johor-Riau Malay, clipping of sahaja or saja.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

je

  1. (informal) Alternative form of sahaja.

Etymology 2 edit

From English jay.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈd͡ʒe/, [ˈd͡ʒe]

Noun edit

(plural je-je)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter J/j.
Synonyms edit
  • je (Indonesian)
  • jim (Jawi letter name)
See also edit

Marshallese edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Micronesian *tia, from Proto-Oceanic *tian, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *tian, from Proto-Austronesian *tiaN.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

je

  1. abdomen
  2. stomach
  3. innard

References edit

Mbyá Guaraní edit

Particle edit

je

  1. indicates hearsay or indirect source of information.
    Mboapy'i je oo jepe raka'e.
    It is said that few could escape.

Middle French edit

Pronoun edit

je

  1. Alternative form of ie

Middle Low German edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

  1. Alternative form of .

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Old East Norse jak.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /jeː/, /jɛː/, /jæː/
  • IPA(key): /jeːɡ/, /jeː/ (rare, Northern Romerike)

Pronoun edit

je (accusative meg or (dialectal) me)

  1. (pre-1938 or dialectal) alternative form of eg (I)

See also edit


Old French edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Vulgar Latin eo, from Latin ego.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

je

  1. I

Descendants edit

Polish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronoun edit

je

  1. accusative of one
  2. accusative of ono

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

je

  1. third-person singular present indicative of jeść

Etymology 3 edit

Verb edit

je

  1. (colloquial) third-person singular present indicative of być

Saterland Frisian edit

Etymology edit

From Old Frisian , from Proto-West Germanic *jā. Cognates include West Frisian ja and German ja. Doublet of jee and .

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

je

  1. Used to intensify a statement to express it is a known fact; obviously, of course

References edit

  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “je”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

Serbo-Croatian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Shortened from jȅst (is).

Verb edit

je ? (Cyrillic spelling је)

  1. is (clitic third-person singular present of bȉti (to be))

Etymology 2 edit

Pronoun edit

je (Cyrillic spelling је)

  1. of her (clitic genitive singular of òna (she))
  2. her (clitic accusative singular of òna (she))
Declension edit

Slovak edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

je

  1. third-person singular of byť
  2. third-person singular of jesť

Slovene edit

Pronunciation 1 edit

Verb edit

  1. third-person singular present of bíti

Pronunciation 2 edit

Verb edit

jẹ́

  1. third-person singular present of jẹ́sti

Swahili edit

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

je

  1. well? now? (used to call attention to a question)

Usage notes edit

Je precedes the question, and is more commonly used in writing (to supplement for what is usually conveyed by tone of voice in speech).

Adverb edit

-je

  1. A clitic placed at the end of a verb, meaning how.
    umelalaje?
    how did you sleep?

Ternate edit

Etymology edit

Clipping of waje.

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

je

  1. Alternative form of waje (complementizer, that)
    ana iwaje je kolano osonethey say that the king is dead

References edit

  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001) A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia, University of Pittsburgh

Turkish edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

je (definite accusative jeyi, plural jeler)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter J.

See also edit

Turkmen edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

je (definite accusative jeni, plural jeler)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter J.

Declension edit

Upper Sorbian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈjɛ/
  • Rhymes:
  • Syllabification: je

Verb edit

je

  1. third-person singular present of być
    Wón je zadołženy.
    He is in debt.

Welsh edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

je f (plural jeau, not mutable)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter J.

See also edit

West Makian edit

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

je

  1. attaches to pronouns to form the dual
    ini jeyou two
    eme jethey two

References edit

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[8], Pacific linguistics