Czech

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Czech Wikipedia has an article on:
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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *ǫsъ.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈvou̯s]
  • Hyphenation: vous

Noun

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vous m inan

  1. one of threads of hair which form a beard
  2. beard
    Synonym: vousy

Declension

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Derived terms

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adjective
noun

See also

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Further reading

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  • vous in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • vous in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
  • vous in Internetová jazyková příručka

French

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Etymology

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Inherited from Middle French vous, from Old French vos, vous, from Latin vōs, from Proto-Italic *wōs.

See cognates in regional languages in France: Angevin, Bourbonnais-Berrichon, Bourguignon, Champenois, Lorrain, Orléanais, and Poitevin-Saintongeais vous; Franc-Comtois vôs; Gallo vouz; Norman and Franco-Provençal vos; Picard os; Occitan vosautres (Provençal vousautes); Catalan vosaltres; Corsican voi.

Other cognates with the same usage are voi in Italian as well as вы in Russian.

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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vous (second-person plural and second-person formal singular, informal singular tu, object vous, emphatic vous, possessive determiner votre)

  1. the plural personal pronoun in the second person:
    1. (subject pronoun) you (all).
      Vous allezYou (all) go.
    2. (direct object pronoun) you (all).
      Je vous adore.I love you (all).
  2. you, to you (indirect object pronoun):
    Je vous donnerai mon adresse.I will give you my address / I will give my address to you.
  3. (formal, polite) plural or singular personal pronoun in the second person:
    Monsieur, je ne peux pas vous le direSir, I cannot tell you.

Usage notes

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  • vous is used to address more than one person or to address one person formally. vous is often used, for example, when two adults meet for the first time.
  • Children, youth, and students do not usually use vous with each other. Adults do not usually use vous to address young children.
  • The use of vous is always considered professional and is used in office settings, schools, etc. to address a single person even when the speaker knows that person well. Thus, Avez-vous fini? (are you finished) may often be heard in an office setting, while As-tu fini? (singular, personal you) is not as common. Likewise, some people may call each other tu in some settings and vous in others; for example, lawyers who are friends with each other may call each other tu in informal settings but vous when in court, out of respect for the formal setting.
  • The use of vous and tu varies from place to place. For example, Quebecers have the reputation of being freer with tu than Europeans, such as among work colleagues.(Can we clean up(+) this sense?)
  • In Louisiana French, the use of vous is rather restricted since it is a polite pronoun and most speakers only use French with people they know well, such as family members. Moreover, it is a singular pronoun; when addressing more than one person, Louisiana French-speakers make use of the plural form vous autres.

Derived terms

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Further reading

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Middle English

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Adjective

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vous

  1. Alternative form of fous

Middle French

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Etymology

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From Old French vos, vous, from Latin vōs.

Pronunciation

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  This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Pronoun

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vous

  1. you (plural or polite)
  2. yourself (second-person plural or polite reflexive pronoun)

Usage notes

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  • As in modern French, vous is either plural or polite as both a subject pronoun and a reflexive pronoun:
    • 1488, Jean Dupré, Lancelot du Lac, page 12:
      Car se vous vous mettez en ceste forest qui est grande et espesse
      For if you put yourself into this forest which is big and thick
      (The first vous is the subject pronoun, and the second is the reflexive pronoun. Both are singular, referring to Lancelot)

Descendants

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  • French: vous

Old French

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Etymology

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From Latin vōs.

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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vous

  1. Alternative form of vos