Czech

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Czech jáz, from Proto-Slavic *azъ, from Proto-Indo-European *eǵHóm.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈjaː]
  • Audio:(file)

Pronoun

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(first person)

  1. I

Declension

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Derived terms

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Noun

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 n (indeclinable)

  1. (psychoanalysis) ego
    Synonym: ego

See also

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Further reading

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  • in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
  • in Internetová jazyková příručka

Icelandic

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Etymology

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From Old Norse (yes), Proto-Germanic *ja (yes).

Pronunciation

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Adverb

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  1. yes

Synonyms

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Interjection

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  1. (informal) yes (as an exclamation of joy or excitement)

Synonyms

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Inari Sami

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Etymology

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From Proto-Germanic *jahw.

Conjunction

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  1. and

Further reading

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  • Koponen, Eino, Ruppel, Klaas, Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002–2008), Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[1], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Indo-Portuguese

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Etymology

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From Portuguese (already; now), from Old Galician-Portuguese ja, from Latin iam (already), from Proto-Indo-European *yē (already).

Particle

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  1. used in conjunction with the past tense
    • 1883, Hugo Schuchardt, Kreolische Studien, volume 3:
      Já fallou par su pai aquêl mais piquin, []
      The youngest one told his father, []

Khiamniungan Naga

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Pronunciation

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Verb

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  1. (Patsho) connect, attach, link
    Kheunyoh nüko meikü ja-i kü noi naih, alumtshouko asheu nü epje.
    Through proper connection with people brings positive results.

Macanese

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Indo-Portuguese , from Portuguese (already; now), from Old Galician-Portuguese ja, from Latin iam (already), from Proto-Indo-European *yē (already). Semantically, compare Chavacano ya.

Pronunciation

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Particle

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  1. past tense marker; marks that an event has reached completion
    Iou falâI spoke
    Vôs uví?Have you heard?
    Atútu vêm di AméricaArtur returned from America
    têm-ia!I've got it!

Usage notes

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  • Placing before a verb in the past tense is optional.
  • Past tense (or any other tense) may not necessarily be marked using ; verb tense is present by default but may have to be inferred through context, a feature possibly influenced by Cantonese grammar.

Conjunction

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já … já

  1. sometimessometimes
    churâ, Sometimes laughing, sometimes crying

References

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Masurian

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈjɒ]
  • Syllabification:

Etymology 1

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Inherited from Old Polish ja.

Pronoun

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  1. first-person pronoun; I

Etymology 2

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Borrowed from German jo.

Particle

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  1. yeah, yep

Further reading

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  • Zofia Stamirowska (1987-2024) “ja”, in Anna Basara, editor, Słownik gwar Ostródzkiego, Warmii i Mazur[2], volume 3, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, →ISBN, pages 53-54

Northern Sami

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

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  • (Kautokeino) IPA(key): /ˈjaː/

Adverb

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  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Further reading

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  • Koponen, Eino, Ruppel, Klaas, Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002–2008), Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[3], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Old Norse

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Etymology

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From Proto-Germanic *ja (yes).

Adverb

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  1. yes

Interjection

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  1. (informal) yes (as an exclamation of joy or excitement)

Descendants

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  • Icelandic:
  • Faroese: ja
  • Norwegian Nynorsk: ja
  • Norwegian Bokmål: ja
  • Old Swedish:
    • Swedish: ja
  • Danish: ja, jo

Portuguese

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Old Galician-Portuguese ja, from Latin iam (already), from Proto-Indo-European *yē (already). Cognate with French /déjà, Italian già, and Spanish ya.

Pronunciation

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  • Rhymes: -a
  • Hyphenation:

Adverb

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(not comparable)

  1. (usually preceding verbs in the past tense) already (indicating that something has happened before)
    li esse livro.
    I have already read this book.
  2. (usually following verbs in the present tense) now (at this instant)
    Synonym: agora
    Consigo fazer isso .
    I can do this right now.
    Compre !
    Buy now!
  3. (in negative sentences, preceding the adverb não) any more; any longer
    Synonym: mais
    Eu não leio mais muitos livros.
    I don’t read many books any more.
  4. (usually preceding verbs in the present tense) in a minute; soon
    Synonyms: logo; já, já
    Não me apresse, eu faço isso.
    Don’t rush me, I will do this in a minute.
  5. (preceding noun phrases) on the other hand, however
    Synonyms: por outro lado, no entanto
    Gosto de ler, a minha mãe não lê nem as notícias.
    I enjoy reading, my mother, on the other hand, doesn’t even read the news.
  6. (preceding a verb in the passive participle) ever
    O melhor bolo feito
    The best cake ever made

Usage notes

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In Portuguese, is said more frequently than the English equivalents. It is sometimes left untranslated altogether.

Quotations

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For quotations using this term, see Citations:já.

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Angolar: dha
  • Annobonese: za
  • Guinea-Bissau Creole: dja
  • Indo-Portuguese:
  • Kabuverdianu: dja
  • Korlai Creole Portuguese: ja, ya
  • Macanese:
  • Kristang: jah
  • Principense: za
  • Sãotomense: za