See also: Shock


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Alternative formsEdit


  • (UK) IPA(key): /ʃɒk/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ʃɑk/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɒk

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Dutch schokken (to push, jolt, shake, jerk) or Middle French choquer (to collide with, clash), from Old Dutch *skokkan (to shake up and down, shog), from Proto-Germanic *skukkaną (to move, shake, tremble). Of uncertain origin. Perhaps related to Proto-Germanic *skakaną (to shake, stir), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kek-, *(s)keg- (to shake, stir); see shake. Cognate with Middle Low German schocken (collide with, deliver a blow to, move back and forth), Old High German scoc (a jolt, swing), Middle High German schocken (to swing) (German schaukeln), Old Norse skykkr (vibration, surging motion), Icelandic skykkjun (tremulously), Middle English schiggen (to shake). More at shog.


shock (countable and uncountable, plural shocks)

  1. A sudden, heavy impact.
    The train hit the buffers with a great shock.
    1. (figuratively) Something so surprising that it is stunning.
    2. A sudden or violent mental or emotional disturbance.
      • 2005, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, David Kessler, On Grief and Grieving, →ISBN, page 85:
        A tremendous shock arises when a secret is discovered.
    3. (medicine) Electric shock, a sudden burst of electrical energy hitting a person or animal.
      • 2018, Sandeep Jauhar, Heart: a History, →ISBN, page 173:
        But as was the case with pacemakers, external defibrillators were unwieldy, and the shocks they delivered—in the rare cases when patients were still conscious—were painful.
    4. (medicine) Circulatory shock, a medical emergency characterized by the inability of the circulatory system to supply enough oxygen to meet tissue requirements.
    5. (physics) A shock wave.
      Several reflected shocks enter the bomb core in rapid succession, each helping to compress it to its maximum density.
  2. (automotive, mechanical engineering) A shock absorber (typically in the suspension of a vehicle).
    If your truck's been riding rough, it might need new shocks.
  3. (mathematics) A discontinuity arising in the solution of a partial differential equation.

See Thesaurus:surprise

Derived termsEdit
  • Bulgarian: шок (šok)
  • Czech: šok
  • Italian: shock
  • Japanese: ショック (shokku)
  • Korean: 쇼크 (syokeu)
  • Macedonian: шок (šok)
  • Russian: шок (šok)
  • Serbo-Croatian:
  • Slovak: šok
  • Spanish: shock
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.


shock (not comparable)

  1. Causing intense surprise, horror, etc.; unexpected and shocking.
    His shock announcement rocked the tennis world.


shock (third-person singular simple present shocks, present participle shocking, simple past and past participle shocked)

  1. (transitive) To cause to be emotionally shocked; to cause (someone) to feel surprised and upset.
    The disaster shocked the world.
  2. (transitive) To give an electric shock to.
  3. (transitive) To subject to a shock wave or violent impact.
    Ammonium nitrate can detonate if severely shocked.
  4. (obsolete, intransitive) To meet with a shock; to collide in a violent encounter.
    • 1832, Thomas De Quincey, Klosterheim Or, the Masque:
      They saw the moment approach when the two parties would shock together.


Etymology 2Edit

Variant of shag.


shock (plural shocks)

  1. An arrangement of sheaves for drying; a stook.
  2. (commerce, dated) A lot consisting of sixty pieces; a term applied in some Baltic ports to loose goods.
  3. (by extension) A tuft or bunch of something, such as hair or grass.
    His head boasted a shock of sandy hair.
    • 2019, Hal Y. Zhang, Hard Mother, Spider Mother, Soft Mother, Brooklyn, NY: Radix Media, →ISBN, page 2:
      On day three I pointed at the edge of an intricate pentagram peeking above her shock of oily black hair.
  4. (obsolete) A small dog with long shaggy hair, especially a poodle or spitz; a shaggy lapdog.
    • 1827 Thomas Carlyle, The Fair-Haired Eckbert
      When I read of witty persons, I could not figure them but like the little shock. (translating the German Spitz)


shock (third-person singular simple present shocks, present participle shocking, simple past and past participle shocked)

  1. (transitive) To collect, or make up, into a shock or shocks; to stook.
    to shock rye




Borrowed from English shock.


  • IPA(key): */ˈʃɔk/
  • Rhymes: -ɔk
  • Hyphenation: shòck


shock m (invariable)

  1. shock (medical; violent or unexpected event)



Unadapted borrowing from English shock.



shock m (plural shocks)

  1. shock

Derived termsEdit

Usage notesEdit

According to Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) prescriptions, unadapted foreign words should be written in italics in a text printed in roman type, and vice versa, and in quotation marks in a manuscript text or when italics are not available. In practice, this RAE prescription is not always followed.

Further readingEdit