Old DutchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-West Germanic *wesan, from Proto-Germanic *wesaną, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wes-.

VerbEdit

wesan

  1. to be

InflectionEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Middle Dutch: wēsen
    • Dutch: wezen
      • Afrikaans: wees
      • Jersey Dutch: wêze
      • Negerhollands: wees, wis
    • Limburgish: waeze

Further readingEdit

  • wesan”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Old EnglishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-West Germanic *wesan, from Proto-Germanic *wesaną, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wes-. The simple present forms originate from Proto-Indo-European *h₁es- (to be), which had no infinitive or past tense in Proto-Germanic, but had already formed a single paradigm with *wesaną supplying the infinitive and past tense.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈwe.sɑn/, [ˈwe.zɑn]

VerbEdit

wesan

  1. to be, exist
Usage notesEdit

The verb “to be” in Old English was suppletive, and used forms from at least three different roots. There were two distinct present stems, for which wesan and bēon were the two infinitive forms. The present bēon was used to express permanent truths (the “gnomic present”), while wesan was used for the imperative, present participle, and the preterite. They shared the same past tense forms.

ConjugationEdit
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *wesaną (to consume, feast), derived from Proto-Indo-European *wes- (to graze).[1] One attestation is the form weaxan in line 3115 of s:Beowulf, argued to be a misspelling of weosan.[2]

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈwe.sɑn/, [ˈwe.zɑn]

VerbEdit

wesan

  1. to feast

Etymology 3Edit

From Proto-Germanic *wōsijaną, from *wōsą.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈweː.sɑn/, [ˈweː.zɑn]

VerbEdit

wēsan

  1. to soak; to macerate; to dye
  2. to ooze
ConjugationEdit

Further readingEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “Wesan- 2”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  2. ^ Seebold, Elmar (1970), “WES-A- 2”, in Vergleichendes und etymologisches Wörterbuch der germanischen starken Verben (Janua Linguarum. Series practica; 85) (in German), Paris, Den Haag: Mouton, →ISBN: “562-63”

Old High GermanEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • sīn (less common infinitive, but became common over time)

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-West Germanic *wesan, from Proto-Germanic *wesaną, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wes-.

VerbEdit

wesan

  1. to be, exist

ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit


Old SaxonEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-West Germanic *wesan, from Proto-Germanic *wesaną, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wes-. The forms in b- derive from Proto-Germanic *beuną (to be, exist, become), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuH- (to grow, become, appear).

VerbEdit

wesan

  1. to be

ConjugationEdit

SynonymsEdit

  • sīn (rare infinitive)

DescendantsEdit


Tok PisinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From English white sand.

NounEdit

wesan

  1. sand

Related termsEdit