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See also: , , -, , and
U+2014, —

General Punctuation
U+FE58, ﹘

Small Form Variants
U+FE31, ︱

CJK Compatibility Forms



Punctuation markEdit

(English name em dash)

  1. Indicates that a sentence is unfinished because the speaker has been interrupted.
  2. Demarcates parenthetical thought. See — —.
  3. Indicates a logical consequence. See also : (the colon).
    • 1962, Jack Frohlichstein, Mathematical Fun, Games and Puzzles (in English), Courier Corporation, →ISBN, page 9:
      Bet anyone he can't correctly name the next highest number to every number which you will give him. []
      43 — he will say 44
      87 — he will say 88
      123 — he will say 124
  4. Indicates aposiopesis, an abrupt breaking-off in speech. See also (the ellipsis).
  5. Separates a term from its definition.
    • 2011, Adam Rizvi, Click Start to Begin: Windows XP Basics (in English), Click Start Publishing Ltd., →ISBN, page 22:
      Refresh This will refresh the current folder, updating it with any new files or settings.
  6. Indicates a lack of data in a table[1]
  7. Alternative form of (horizontal bar; quotation dash; introduces a line of dialogue)
  8. censored letters.
    Dn. Fk.


For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:—.

Derived termsEdit

Derived termsEdit

  • (two-em dash)
  • (three-em dash)

See alsoEdit



  1. ^ Joan G. Nagle, Handbook for preparing engineering documents: from concept to completion, 1995, p. 114:
    We can use the word none or N/D (no data), or insert an em dash; any of these entries show that we haven't simply forgotten to fill the cell. N/A is commonly used for not applicable. It's good practice to footnote N/A or N/D the first time it is used.


Russian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ru

Punctuation markEdit

  1. Indicates zero (omission) of the present tense of быть (bytʹ). Called тире́ (tirɛ́) in Russian.
    Vrémja — dénʹgi.
    Time is money.
  2. Used in — —.
  3. Replaces in some appositions, where hyphen would be used to connect the appositive word and the word in apposition if neither of them was a phrase.
    Не́которые госуда́рствачле́ны ЕС препя́тствуют размеще́нию бе́женцев на свое́й террито́рии.
    Nékotoryje gosudárstva — člény JeS prepjátstvujut razmeščéniju béžencev na svojéj territórii.
    Some EU member states prevent placement of refugees on their territory.

Usage notesEdit

  1. "—" is not used when the subject is a pronoun; e.g., я ру́сский (ja rússkij, I am Russian) or with predicative adjectives.
  2. "— —" are preferred over "( )" when the supplemental information is necessary to understand author's point and can't be dropped.
  3. Hyphen is used in Russian apposition when the first word is not a form of address (e. g. товарищ) and the second word is an appellative.