- Indicate that a sentence is unfinished because the speaker has been interrupted.
- Demarcates parenthetical thought. See — —.
- Indicates a logical consequence. See also : (“the colon”).
- Indicates aposiopesis, an abrupt breaking-off in speech. See also … (“the ellipsis”).
- Separates a term from its definition.
- Indicates a lack of data in a table
- Alternative form of
For usage examples of this term, see Citations:—.
In English, this symbol is called em dash.
quotation marks - all matched-pairs
quotation marks and quotation dashes - all single characters
- ^ Joan G. Nagle, Handbook for preparing engineering documents: from concept to completion, 1995, p. 114:
We can use the word none or N/D (no data), or insert an em dash; any of these entries show that we haven't simply forgotten to fill the cell. N/A is commonly used for not applicable. It's good practice to footnote N/A or N/D the first time it is used.