- Indicate that a sentence is unfinished because the speaker has been interrupted.
- Demarcates parenthetical thought
- Indicates aposiopesis
- Indicates a lack of data in a table
In English, this symbol is called em dash.
- ^ Joan G. Nagle, Handbook for preparing engineering documents: from concept to completion, 1995, p. 114:
We can use the word none or N/D (no data), or insert an em dash; any of these entries show that we haven't simply forgotten to fill the cell. N/A is commonly used for not applicable. It's good practice to footnote N/A or N/D the first time it is used.
— (—) impf
- Indicates zero (omission) of the present tense of быть (byt’). Called тире (tirɛ́) in Russian.
- "—" is not used when the subject is a pronoun; e.g., я русский — I am Russian.