Belarusian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [nʲe]
  • IPA(key): [nʲa] (before a stressed syllable, even if no change in spelling)
  • Rhymes: -a, -e
  • Audio:(file)

Adverb

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не (nje)

  1. no (word used to indicate disagreement or negative)

Alternative forms

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Particle

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не (nje)

  1. not
    я не разуме́юja nje razumjéjuI don't understand

Usage notes

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  • By some standards and conventions не (nje) is always written, even if it's pronounced as ня (nja).
  • ня (nja) can sometimes be replaced with не (nje) but не (nje) can't be replaced with ня (nja) if it's not in a pre-tonal position, for example:
    1. я ня ве́даю (ja nja vjédaju) = я не ве́даю (ja nje vjédaju)
    2. я ня разуме́ю (ja nja razumjéju) = я не разуме́ю (ja nje razumjéju)
  • ня (nja) can't replace не (nje) in any stressed position or as an adverb no (word used to indicate disagreement or negative)

Bulgarian

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Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

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Particle

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не (ne)

  1. used to show disagreement or negation, no
    Не, грешиш.
    Ne, grešiš.
    No, you are mistaken.
    Не, сега не може да гледаш телевизия.
    Ne, sega ne može da gledaš televizija.
    No, you may not watch television now.
  2. used to negate the meaning of the following word or phrase, not, n't
    Не знам.
    Ne znam.
    I don't know.
    Не мога.
    Ne moga.
    I cannot.
    Мария не им даде възможност да се извинят.
    Marija ne im dade vǎzmožnost da se izvinjat.
    Maria didn't give them a chance to apologize.
    Не Мария им даде възможност да се извинят.
    Ne Marija im dade vǎzmožnost da se izvinjat.
    It was not Maria who gave them a chance to apologize. (Someone else did.)
    Не на тях Мария даде възможност да се извинят.
    Ne na tjah Marija dade vǎzmožnost da se izvinjat.
    It was not to them that Maria gave a chance to apologize. (She gave it to someone else.)
    Не възможност да се извинят им даде Мария.
    Ne vǎzmožnost da se izvinjat im dade Marija.
    It was not a chance to apologize that Maria gave them. (She gave them something else.)
    Не да се извинят им даде възможност Мария.
    Ne da se izvinjat im dade vǎzmožnost Marija.
    It was not a chance to apologize that Maria gave them. (She gave them a chance to do something else.)

Anagrams

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Kazakh

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Alternative scripts
Arabic نە
Cyrillic не
Latin ne

Pronoun

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не (ne)

  1. (interrogative) what

Macedonian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

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Adverb

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не (ne)

  1. no

Particle

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не (ne)

  1. not

Old Church Slavonic

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Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Particle

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не (ne)

  1. no
  2. not
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Old East Slavic

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Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *ne. Cognates include Old Church Slavonic не (ne) and Old Polish nie.

Pronunciation

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  • (ca. 9th CE) IPA(key): /nɛ/
  • (ca. 11th CE) IPA(key): /nʲɛ/
  • (ca. 13th CE) IPA(key): /nʲɛ/
  • Hyphenation: не

Particle

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не (ne)

  1. no
  2. not
    • 1076, Sviatoslav's izbornik[1], page 2:
      не рече оустꙑ тъчью иꙁгл҃аахъ·
      ne reče usty tŭčĭju izgl:aaxŭ·
      He didn't say: I just pronounced [them] with [my] mouth;

Descendants

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  • Old Ruthenian: не (ne)
    • Belarusian: не (nje)
    • Carpathian Rusyn: не (ne)
    • Ukrainian: не (ne)
  • Russian: не (ne)

References

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  • Sreznevsky, Izmail I. (1902) “не”, in Матеріалы для Словаря древне-русскаго языка по письменнымъ памятникамъ [Materials for the Dictionary of the Old East Slavic Language Based on Written Monuments]‎[2] (in Russian), volumes 2 (Л – П), Saint Petersburg: Department of Russian Language and Literature of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, column 354

Russian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne. Cognates include Lithuanian ne, Old English ne, Gothic 𐌽𐌹 (ni), Irish , Latin ne, Sanskrit ().

Pronunciation

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Particle

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не (ne)

  1. (negative in full) not, no, -n't, without
    Он не зна́етOn ne znájetHe does not know.
    не долете́в до це́лиne doletév do céliwithout having reached the target
    он не ге́нийon ne génijhe is no genius
    Не де́лай э́того!Ne délaj étovo!Don’t do it!
    Не говори́ ни сло́ва!Ne govorí ni slóva!don’t say a word!
  2. Idiomatic negative usage
    (мне) не по себе́(mne) ne po sebé(I) feel sick; (I) feel uncomfortable
    не разne razmore than once (literary: not once); time and again; repeatedly; many a time
    Я ви́дел вас не раз.Ja vídel vas ne raz.I have seen you often.
    тем не ме́нееtem ne ménejenevertheless
  3. (partial negative) perhaps not, whether ... or not
    Сча́стье не сча́стье, но что́-то похо́жее.Sčástʹje ne sčástʹje, no štó-to poxóžeje.Perhaps not happiness, but something very much like it.
    Хо́чешь не хо́чешь, а придётся сде́лать.Xóčešʹ ne xóčešʹ, a pridjótsja sdélatʹ.like it or not, you’ll have to do it.
  4. will never (implying impossibility to do something)
    Ему́ э́того не сде́лать.Jemú étovo ne sdélatʹ.He will never do it.
  5. (usually not translated, gives affirmative meaning for expression, especially in exclamations)
    Како́й ру́сский не лю́бит бы́строй езды́!Kakój rússkij ne ljúbit býstroj jezdý!What Russian doesn't like fast driving!
    Кто не лю́бит пое́сть!Kto ne ljúbit pojéstʹ!Who doesn't like a good meal!

Usage notes

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не sometimes appears stressed, e.g. in the past negative of быть (bytʹ, to be), where the forms appear as не́ был (né byl), не была́ (ne bylá), не́ было (né bylo), не́ были (né byli) (i.e. не is stressed in the masculine singular, the neuter singular and the plural, but not the feminine singular).

Prefix

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не (ne)

  1. (With prepositions and pronouns не actually is a prefix, in spite of the fact that it is written separately.)
    не́ с кем (né s kem, from)не́кем (nékem)
    не́ из чего́ (né iz čevó, from)не́чего (néčevo)

Interjection

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не (ne)

  1. (colloquial) no (used to show disagreement or negation)
    Synonym: (standard and common term) нет (net)
    Помо́жешь мне? Не, да́же и не ду́май.Pomóžešʹ mne? Ne, dáže i ne dúmaj.Will you help me? No, don't even think about it.

See also

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Serbo-Croatian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

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Particle

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не (Latin spelling ne)

  1. not (denoting negation)
    Не знам.I don't know.
    Он је не само даровит, већ и јако марљив.He is not only talented, but also very industrious.
    хтео-не хтеоwhether you want it or not
    Да не спаваш?Aren't you sleeping?
    Не могу, а да неI cannot but…
    рећи неto say no, refuse, decline
    не мање него…no less then…
    не доћиto fail to come, not come
    … Зар не?… Aren't you? (Do you?, Don't you?)

Interjection

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не (Latin spelling ne)

  1. no
    Да ли си демократа? Не!Are you a democrat? No!

Synonyms

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  • јок (dialectal, from Turkish)

Antonyms

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Southern Altai

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Etymology

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From Proto-Turkic *nē-. Cognate with Kazakh не (ne), Karakalpak ne, Nogai не (ne, what?), Kyrgyz не (ne), Crimean Tatar ne, Kumyk не (ne), Bashkir ни (ni), Tatar ни (ni), Azerbaijani , Salar neñ, Turkish ne (what?), Uzbek na, Uyghur نە (ne), Khakas ноо (noo), Shor ноо, Tuvan чүү (çüü), Western Yugur ne, etc.

Pronoun

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не (ne)

  1. what

Tajik

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Dari نه, نی
Iranian Persian نه
Tajik не, на

Etymology

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Inherited from Classical Persian نی (), see there for more.

Adverb

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не (ne)

  1. no

See also

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Tundra Nenets

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Etymology

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From Proto-Samoyedic *ne, from Proto-Uralic *niŋä.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [nʲe]
  • Hyphenation: не

Noun

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не (nye)

  1. woman
  2. wife

Declension

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Declension of не (nye) (regular)
singular dual plural
nominative не (nye) нехэʼ (nyexeh) неˮ (nyeq)
genitive неʼ (nyeh) нехэʼ (nyexeh) неˮ (nyeq)
accusative нем (nyem°) нехэʼ (nyexeh) не (nye)
allative нен (nyen°) нехэняʼ (nyexenyah) нехэˮ (nyexeq)
locative нехэна (nyexena) нехэняна (nyexenyana) нехэˮна (nyexeqna)
ablative нехэд (nyexed°) нехэняд (nyexenyad°) нехэт (nyexet°)
prolative невна (nyewna) нехэнямна (nyexenyamna) неˮмӑна (nyeqmăna)

References

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  • Pyrerka, A. P., Tereščenko, N. M. (1948) Русско-ненецкий словарь [Russian–Nenets Dictionary], Moscow: Огиз, page 78
  • N. M. Tereschenko (2005) “не”, in Словарь ненецко-русский и русско-ненецкий, 3rd edition, Saint Petersburg: Просвещение, →ISBN
  • Irina Nikolaeva (2014) A Grammar of Tundra Nenets, Walter de Gruyter GmbH, →ISBN, page 33

Ukrainian

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Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

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Particle

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не (ne)

  1. no
  2. not

See also

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