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  1. water


  • Grace Hensarli, The function of -ki 'switch' in Kogi



  1. genitive and dative and locative and instrumental singular of ona



  1. live, be alive



Etymology 1Edit

From Old Irish (anything; thing).

Alternative formsEdit


 m (genitive singular , nominative plural nithe)

  1. thing
    Synonyms: rud
  2. object


Derived termsEdit


  1. which (referring back to a clause) (followed by a relative clause)
    • 1939, Peig Sayers, “Inghean an Cheannaidhe”, printed in Marie-Louise Sjoestedt, Description d’un parler irlandais de Kerry, Bibliothèque de l'École des Hautes Études 270. Paris: Librairie Honoré Champion, p. 194:
      Do bhíodar sé mhí gan fille, agus nuair a chonaic Máire an t-árthach ag teacht chun cuain, bhí sceitimíní ar a croidhe le lúthgháir agus le h-áthas, nárbh’ iongnadh.
      They were [away] six months without returning, and when Máire saw the vessel coming to port, her heart had raptures of gladness and joy, which was not surprising.

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Irish nige.

Alternative formsEdit


 f (genitive singular nite)

  1. verbal noun of nigh
  2. washing


  1. present subjunctive analytic of nigh

Etymology 3Edit

From Old Irish .


  1. not (preverbal particle)
    thuigim.I do not understand.
    dheachaigh mé ansin.I did not go there.
    bhfaighidh siad é.They will not find it.
  2. not (present copular form)
    críonnacht creagaireacht.Miserliness is not thrift.
    hionann iad.They are not the same.
    An gloine é? hea.Is it glass? No.
Usage notesEdit

The preverbal particle triggers lenition of a following consonant. It is not used in the past tense except for some irregular verbs. It takes the dependent form of irregular verbs. The copular form triggers h-prothesis of a following vowel.

Related termsEdit
  • cha (nonstandard)
  • níor (used in the past tense with regular and some irregular verbs, also the past/conditional copular form)

Etymology 4Edit

From Old Irish do·gní.

Alternative formsEdit


  1. (archaic, Ulster) present analytic independent of déan

Further readingEdit



  1. alive



(Zhuyin ㄋㄧˊ)

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di- (oral) + -Ø- (3rd person subject prefix) + -Ø- (classifier)-ní (neuter imperfective stem of root -NIID, “to say”).



  1. he/she says
    Dooda, dishní! — I say no!

Usage notesEdit

This verb is frequently used for quoted speech. To introduce quoted speech, just add the prefix á- (thus) to any of the forms of the verb. This modifies the meaning to something like "to say as follows" or "to say thus":

Asdzą́ą́ ání, Beeʼeldííl Dahsinilgóó deekai, ní. — That woman says, “we are going to Albuquerque,” she says.

This is a neuter verb that uses only the imperfective mode. Other modes are suppleted by the active verb niih, reproduced below for convenience.


Paradigm: Neuter imperfective (Ø), with some irregularities.

NEUTER IMP singular duoplural plural
1st person dishní diiʼní dadiiʼní
2nd person diní dohní dadohní
3rd person daaní
4th person jiní dajiní
PERFECTIVE singular duoplural plural
1st person dííniid diiʼniid dadiiʼniid
2nd person dííníniid dooniid dadooniid
3rd person dííniid dadííniid
4th person jidííniid dazhdííniid
FUTURE singular duoplural plural
1st person dideeshniił didiiʼniił dadidiiʼniił
2nd person didííniił didoohniił dadidoohniił
3rd person didooniił dadidooniił
4th person dizhdooniił dazhdidooniił
ITERATIVE singular duoplural plural
1st person ńdíshʼniih ńdiiʼniih ńdadiiʼniih
2nd person ńdíʼniih ńdóhʼniih ńdadohʼniih
3rd person ńdíʼniih ńdadiʼniih
4th person nízhdíʼniih ńdazhdiʼniih
OPTATIVE singular duoplural plural
1st person dóshneʼ dooʼneʼ dadooʼneʼ
2nd person dóóneʼ doohneʼ dadoohneʼ́
3rd person dóneʼ dadóneʼ
4th person jidóneʼ dazhdóneʼ

See alsoEdit

Old IrishEdit


From Proto-Celtic *nīs (compare Welsh ni), from Proto-Indo-European *ne h₁ésti (is not) (compare Sanskrit (na), Latin ne, Gothic 𐌽𐌹 (ni)).



  1. not
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 24a38
      epur a n-anman sund.
      I do not say their names here.
    Synonyms: nícon

Usage notesEdit

Followed by the dependent form of the verb, which (in Old Irish) is not subjected to nasalization or lenition mutation unless a direct object pronoun is implied. Compare:

  • Ní ben inna firuHe does not strike the men
    : Here the b of ben is unmutated.
  • Ní mbenHe does not strike him
    : Here the b of ben is nasalized to mb.
  • Ní benHe does not strike it
    : Here the b of ben is lenited.

In Middle Irish increasingly, and in Modern Irish always, lenites the following verb.



  1. is not, isn’t
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 12c29
      ar formut frib-si as·biur-sa inso.
      It is not because of envy towards you that I say this.


Person Singular Plural
1 níta, nída nítan, nídan
2 níta, nída nítad, nídad
3 nítat, nídat