See also: , , , and
U+91CC, 里
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91CC

[U+91CB]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91CD]
U+2FA5, ⾥
KANGXI RADICAL VILLAGE

[U+2FA4]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FA6]
U+F9E9, 里
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9E9

[U+F9E8]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9EA]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

Stroke order
Hong Kong, Taiwan
 
Stroke order
 
Stroke order (Taiwan)
 

(Kangxi radical 166, +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 田土 (WG), four-corner 60104, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #166, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1291, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40131
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1791, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3680, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+91CC

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
   

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意): (field) + (soil; earth) – a measure of land and fields; mile; place.

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r/g-wa (village) (STEDT). Cognate with (OC *kʰʷɯ) "hill, mound" & (OC *kreː, *kreː) "road crossing, street"; outsides Sinitic, cognate with Mizo khua (village), Lai khûa (village, cosmos), Burmese ရွာ (rwa, village); Schuessler (2007) also proposes cognacy with Tibetan ར་བ (ra ba, fence, enclosure, wall, pen) by pointing to a semantic parallel between English town and German Zaun (fence).

Alternatively, possibly related to () "to divide into equal sections", yet Schuessler also noted that early Chinese villages were not systematically planned and platted.

Pronunciation edit


Note: lei5-2 - in street names.
Note:
  • Meixian:
    • li1 - vernacular (unit of distance);
    • li3 - literary (native place, neighborhood).
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter liX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lɨX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lieX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /liəX/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭəX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /liX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    lei5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ liX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*(mə.)rəʔ/
    English li (measure of distance); village

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7826
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*rɯʔ/

    Definitions edit

    1. li (a unit of distance equal to half a kilometre in modern Mainland China)
        ―  gōng  ―  kilometre
    2. neighbourhood (formal or informal grouping of adjacent dwellings; the size vary according to different historical sources)
        ―  lín  ―  neighbours
    3. urban village (an administrative unit in the Republic of China)
    4. village (an administrative unit in South Korea and North Korea)
    5. lane (a type of road in Hong Kong)
    6. a surname

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ri)
    • Korean: 리(里) (ri)
    • Vietnamese: ()

    Others:

    • English: li
    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    simp. and trad.

    Pronunciation edit


    Definitions edit

    1. (Xiang) Particle indicating the word preceding it is used as an adverb.
    Synonyms edit
    • (chiefly Mandarin) (de)

    Etymology 3 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“in; inside; during; within; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the simplified form of ).
    Notes:

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    さと
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨sato1 → */satʷo//sato/

    From Old Japanese,[1][2] from Proto-Japonic *sato.

    Ultimately derivation unknown. Theories include a compound of either (sa-, short) or (sa-, narrow) + (to, place) or (to, door). Other theories have been suggested but are unlikely.[1]

    Alternative forms edit

    • (village, hometown):

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (さと) (sato

    1. a village
      Synonyms: (mura), 村里 (murazato)
    2. a country house
    3. one's hometown
      Synonyms: 田舎 (inaka), 故郷 (kokyō)
    4. the country, countryside
    5. the original home of a household member (such as a wife, adoptee, or other person who has joined the household from outside)
    6. a separate home or boarding situation to which one's own children are sent for upbringing or education
    7. a red-light district
      Synonym: 遊里 (yūri)
    8. one's birth, parentage, origins
    9. (slang, red-light district) boorishness, hickishness
    10. the lay world (as opposed to life within a temple)
    11. (uncommon, historical, obsolete) Same as (ri) below

    Derived terms edit

    Adjective edit

    (さと) (sato-na (adnominal (さと) (sato na), adverbial (さと) (sato ni))

    1. (slang, red-light district) boorish, hickish
    Inflection edit

    Proper noun edit

    (さと) (Sato

    1. a placename
    2. a surname
    3. a female given name

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC liX).

    Compare modern Chinese ().

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    () (ri

    1. a unit of distance:
      1. under the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system, defined as equal to 300 (bu) or 1500 (shaku)
      2. from the early modern until the end of the Edo period, defined as equal to 36 (chō), approximately between 3.6 to 4.2 kilometers
      3. from the mid-Meiji period, defined as equal to 129,60033 meters, approximately 3.927 kilometers or 2.44 miles
    2. (historical) under the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system, a unit of area for regional administration, equal to 50 (ko, houses)

    Derived terms edit

    Affix edit

    () (ri

    1. village

    Etymology 3 edit

    Various nanori readings. Perhaps the satoshi reading is from 聡い (satoi, clever, from earlier satoshi), while the zato is a voiced rendaku (連濁) version of sato above. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Proper noun edit

    (さとし) (Satoshi

    1. a male given name

    (ざと) (Zato

    1. a placename

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 さと 【里・郷】”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)  [1] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, released online 2007, →ISBN, concise edition entry available here (Note: Dialectal meanings, etymological theories, pronunciation including modern, dialectal, and historical information, Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, historical dictionaries containing this word, and the kanji spellings in those dictionaries have been omitted.)
    2. ^ Omodaka, Hisataka (1967) 時代別国語大辞典 上代編 [The dictionary of historical Japanese: Old Japanese] (in Japanese), →ISBN, pages 333-334
    3. 3.0 3.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 마을 (ma'eul ri), South Korea 마을 (ma'eul i))

    1. Hanja form? of (village).
    2. Hanja form? of (a li, a Korean "mile" of about 393 m).

    Compounds edit

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *sato, from Proto-Japonic *sato (hamlet). The original "hamlet" sense is now only found in place names.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (さとぅ) (satu

    1. (literary or poetic) beau, lover
      月も眺めたいでかやう立ち戻ら、やわが宿に待ちゆらだいもの
      tsichi-n nagamitai dikayo tachimudura, satu-ya waga yadu ni muchura demunu
      I also want to look at the moon, so come on, let's go. My darling shall be waiting at the house.

    Usage notes edit

    Used from a woman to a man. The term for a homeland is 親の家 (uya nu ya), and the term for a village is either (shima) or (mura).

    Etymology 2 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC liX). Possibly from Japanese.

    Suffix edit

    () (-ri

    1. a unit of distance:
      1. under the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system, defined as equal to 300 Japanese (bu) or 1500 Japanese (shaku)
      2. from the early modern until the end of the Edo period, defined as equal to 36 Japanese (chō), approximately between 3.6 to 4.2 kilometers
      3. from the mid-Meiji period, defined as equal to 129,60033 meters, approximately 3.927 kilometers or 2.44 miles

    References edit

    1. ^ 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawago Jiten, “Okinawan Dictionary”)[2], 1963

    Old Japanese edit

    Alternative forms edit

    Etymology edit

    From Proto-Japonic *sato.

    Unknown. Theories include a compound of either (sa-, short) or (sa-, narrow) + (to1 or to2, place) or (to1, door). Other theories have been suggested but are unlikely.[1][2]

    Noun edit

    (sato1) (kana さと)

    1. a village
      • 711–712, Kojiki, (Second scroll, Emperor Suinin):
        於是、圓野比賣慚言「同兄弟之中、以姿醜被還之事、聞於隣、是甚慚。」而、到山代國之相樂時、取懸樹枝而欲死、故號其地謂懸木、今云相樂。
        (please add an English translation of this quotation)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū, (book 15, poem 3782):
        安麻其毛理毛能母布等伎爾保等登芸須和我須武佐刀爾伎那伎等余母須
        amago2mori mo2no2'mopu to2ki1 ni poto2to2gi1su waga sumu sato1 ni ki1naki1to2yo2mosu
        (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    2. under the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system:
      1. a unit of area for regional administration, defined as equal to 50 (ko, houses)
      2. a unit of distance, defined as equal to 300 (bu) or 1500 (shaku)
    3. one's home of birth
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū, (book 6, poem 1026):
        百礒城乃大宮人者今日毛鴨暇无跡爾不出將有
        momosiki no2 opomi1yapi1to2 pa ke1pu mo ka mo ito2ma wo nami1to2 sato1 ni idezu aramu
        (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    4. one's hometown
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū, (book 12, poem 3134):
        離遠有莫國草枕旅登之思者尚戀來
        sato1 panare to2poku aranaku ni kusamakura tabi1 to2 si omopeba napo ko1pi2nike1ri
        (please add an English translation of this quotation)

    Derived terms edit

    Descendants edit

    • Japanese: (さと, sato)

    References edit

    1. ^ さと 【里・郷】”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)  [3] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, released online 2007, →ISBN, concise edition entry available here (Note: Dialectal meanings, etymological theories, pronunciation including modern, dialectal, and historical information, Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, historical dictionaries containing this word, and the kanji spellings in those dictionaries have been omitted.)
    2. ^ Omodaka, Hisataka (1967) 時代別国語大辞典 上代編 [The dictionary of historical Japanese: Old Japanese] (in Japanese), →ISBN, pages 333-334

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: [1][2], [3]
    : Nôm readings: [2][4], lái[1], rưới[1], trẻ[1], lia[2], [3], lịa[3]

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References edit