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See also: , [U+2013 EN DASH], - [U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS], [U+2212 MINUS SIGN], [U+2014 EM DASH], [U+30FC KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK], [U+4E28 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E28], [U+3127 BOPOMOFO LETTER I], [U+31AA BOPOMOFO LETTER INN], and [U+4EA0 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EA0]


U+4E00, 一
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E00
䷿
[U+4DFF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E01]
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Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 1, +0, 1 stroke, cangjie input 一 (M), four-corner 10000)

  1. Kangxi radical #1, .
  2. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №1

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 75, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1
  • Dae Jaweon: page 129, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 1, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E00

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms financial
 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
                   





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qliɡ
*qliɡ

A horizontal stroke, indicating the number one.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔit. Descendants from the *ʔit etymon account for the majority of the dialectal forms for ONE in Chinese (Mandarin, Jin, Gan, Hakka, Hui, Xiang, Yue, Wu groups, etc.).

In Min, an additional unrelated form is found and used as the colloquial reading for ONE. Compare:

Fuzhou/Fuding suoʔ8, Fuqing θyo8, Gutian syøʔ8, Ningde søʔ8, Zhouning sɔʔ8, Putian ɬoʔ8, Xiamen/Quanzhou/Yongchun/Zhangzhou tsit̚8, Leizhou/Haikou ziak8, Longyan tse4, Youxi ɕie7, Jian'ou/Songxi tsi5, Jianyang tsi8.

Whether all of the forms above are related and their origins remain unelucidated; they may be derived from (cf. (single, alone)), (< *tjak ~ g-t(j)ik) or .

Some Fujian dialects use and for ONE.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Pronounced (yāo) when spelling phone number, one on dice or dominoes.
  • Subject to retrograde tone sandhi (see Wikipedia for details):
    • before fourth tone, pronounced with second tone;
    • before any other tone, pronounced with fourth tone;
    • when final (or at the end of a multi-syllable word), pronounced with the original tone (first tone);
    • when used in a series of numbers, as a part of a number, in dates, or in addresses, pronounced with the original tone (first tone).
  • When used between two reduplicated words, pronounced with neutral tone.
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • cì - colloquial;
    • ĭ - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • siŏh - colloquial;
    • ék - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chi̍t - colloquial;
    • it - literary.
    Note:
    • zêg8 - colloquial;
    • ig4, êg4 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (48)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔiɪt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔit̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔjet̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔit̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔiĕt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭĕt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯ĕt̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔjit ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔi[t]/
    English one

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14833
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qliɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. one
      • /   ―  cháng duǎn  ―  one short and one long
      • /   ―  shāng  ―  one dead, one injured
      •   ―  gāo   ―  one high and one low
      •   ―  tiān   ―  one day and one night
      •   ―  zuǒ yòu  ―  one left, one right
    2. each; every
    3. single; alone
    4. whole; entire; all: throughout
    5. same; identical
      • 大小  ―  dàxiǎo bù   ―  having different sizes
    6. another; alternative
      • 蟋蟀促織 / 蟋蟀促织  ―  xīshuài, míng cùzhī  ―  Crickets, also called cùzhī [lit. another name [being] cùzhī].
    7. With the verb modified reduplicated, expressing the transience of the verb.
      1. Indicating that the action has occurred only once.
        •   ―  kàn kàn  ―  to have a look
      2. Indicating the intention to try.
        •   ―  suàn suàn  ―  to try to calculate it
    8. once; as soon as; upon
    9. for the first time; at the beginning
    10. surprisingly; unexpectedly
    11. (LGBT, slang) top
      alt. forms: 1

    Usage notesEdit

    See pronunciation section for tone sandhi rules in Modern Standard Chinese.

    In the Beijing dialect, there is a kind of tone sandhi in which is pronounced as regardless of the succeeding tone (Liang, 2002):

    Such is grammatically different from other tone sandhis of ; it is only used in the structure + noun, and only in places where it can be replaced with 一個一个 (yīge), from which it was reduced.

    See alsoEdit

    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (いち) (ichi);  (いつ) (itsu)
    • Korean: (, il)
    • Vietnamese: nhất ()

    Others:


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. one
    2. "one" radical (いち)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (Financial/formal form):

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    いち
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi
    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  0 1 2  > 
        Cardinal :

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiɪt̚).

    The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana いち, rōmaji ichi)

    1. one, 1
    2. term relating to the number one:
      1. first in order, foremost
      2. the beginning
      3. the best
      4. a kind of; one of something
      5. (card games) ace
    3. unity
    4. the bottom string of a shamisen or other Japanese musical instrument
    Derived termsEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (hiragana いち, rōmaji ichi)

    1. (cardinal) one, 1

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana いち, rōmaji Ichi)

    1. a surname
    IdiomsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    いつ
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔiɪt̚).

    The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana いつ, rōmaji itsu)

    1. one
    2. the same
    Derived termsEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (hiragana いつ, rōmaji itsu)

    1. one, 1

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana いつ, rōmaji Itsu)

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひと
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    *⟨pi2to2 → */pɨtə//fito//hito/

    From Old Japanese.

    Apophonic form of (futa, two).

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (hiragana ひと, rōmaji hito)

    1. (cardinal) one, 1
    Derived termsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana ひと, rōmaji hito-)

    1. prefix to nouns and verbs:
      1. one, single
      2. all
      3. a bit
      4. a certain time
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Shortening of hito above.

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji hi)

    1. one, 1

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひい
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Long-pronounced form of hi above.

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (hiragana ひい, rōmaji )

    1. one, 1

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    いい
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Borrowing from Chinese ().

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (katakana イー, katakana イイ, rōmaji ī)

    1. one, 1
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 7Edit

    Kanji in this term
    はじめ
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    From 始め (hajime, beginning, first), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 始める (hajimeru, to begin something).

    The use of the kanji for "one" is an example of jukujikun (熟字訓).

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Irregular reading)

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana はじめ, rōmaji Hajime)

    1. a unisex given name
    2. a surname

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 하나 (hana il))

    1. one

    NumeralEdit

    (il) (hangeul )

    1. (cardinal) one

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (nhất, nhắt, nhứt)

    1. one

    ReferencesEdit