See also: and
U+6210, 成
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6210

[U+620F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6211]

成 U+2F8B2, 成
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F8B2
懶
[U+2F8B1]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 戛
[U+2F8B3]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 62, +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 戈竹尸 (IHS), four-corner 53200, composition 𠃌 or (U+2F8B2))

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 411, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11542
  • Dae Jaweon: page 752, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1399, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6210

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𢦩

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *djeŋ) : semantic + phonetic (OC *rteːŋ, *teːŋ).

Etymology

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Cognate with (OC *djeŋ, “to hold with a receptacle”), (OC *djeŋ, “city wall; city”), (OC *djeŋs, “abundant; flourishing”) (Schuessler, 2007).

According to Bodman (1980), cognate with Tibetan གྱང (gyang, wall), Tibetan འགེངས་པ ('gengs pa, to fill), Tibetan བཀང (bkang, to fill to the brim), Tibetan སྐོང་བ (skong ba, to fulfill).

Pronunciation

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Note: chéngr - "one tenth".
Note:
  • sing4 - literary;
  • seng4 - vernacular;
  • cing4 - variant of sing4 “one tenth”.
Note:
  • sen3 - literary;
  • siang3 - vernacular.
Note:
  • sṳ̀n/sen2 - literary;
  • sàng/sang2 - vernacular.
Note:
  • chiàng - vernacular ("to help complete");
  • siàng - vernacular ("approximate number, post-verbal complement");
  • sìng - literary.
Note:
  • chhiâⁿ - vernacular in 成格 ;
  • chiâⁿ - vernacular ("almost", "to become");
  • siâⁿ - vernacular ("one tenth");
  • sêng - literary.
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: cian5 / zian5 / sian5 / sêng5
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: tshiâⁿ / tsiâⁿ / siâⁿ / sêng
      • Sinological IPA (key): /t͡sʰĩã⁵⁵/, /t͡sĩã⁵⁵/, /sĩã⁵⁵/, /seŋ⁵⁵/
Note:
  • cian5, zian5, sian5 - vernacular;
  • sêng5 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ⁴⁵/
/t͡sʰəŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /tʃʰəŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ²⁴/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰən²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡sʰən³¹/
Guiyang /t͡sʰen²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰə̃¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰən²⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zəŋ²³/
Suzhou /zən¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zen²¹³/
Wenzhou /zeŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰiʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ɕiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂən¹³/
Xiangtan /ɖ͡ʐən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /sɑŋ⁴⁵/ 現~
/t͡sʰɑŋ²⁴/ 七八~
Hakka Meixian /sən¹¹/ ~功
/saŋ¹¹/ 唔~
Taoyuan /ʃen¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /seŋ²¹/
/sɛŋ²¹/
Nanning /seŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /siŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /siŋ³⁵/
/t͡siã³⁵/ ~人
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /siaŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /t͡sʰeiŋ²¹/
/iaŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /seŋ⁵⁵/
/siã⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /seŋ³¹/
/t͡sia³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (121)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter dzyeng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑiᴇŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɛŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiæŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑiajŋ/
Li
Rong
/ʑiɛŋ/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭɛŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯ɛŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chéng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sing4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chéng chéng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyeng › ‹ dzyeng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]eŋ/ /*m-[d]eŋ/
English to become (v.i.) to complete (tr. v)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1417
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djeŋ/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. to succeed; to accomplish; to achieve; to finish; to complete
    1. (verb complement) indicates successful completion or accomplishment of an action
        ―  zuòchéng  ―  to successfully complete
    沒有什麼事情 [MSC, trad.]
    没有什么事情 [MSC, simp.]
    Méiyǒu qián shénme shìqíng dōu bàn bù chéng. [Pinyin]
    Without money nothing can be done.
    不了大事 [MSC, trad.]
    不了大事 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè zhǒng rén chéng bùliǎo dàshì de. [Pinyin]
    These people are not able to accomplish anything significant.
  2. to help to achieve
      ―  chéngquán  ―  to help (somebody) succeed
  3. to become; to turn into
    1. (verb complement) into; as
        ―  huànchéng  ―  to change into
      翻譯翻译  ―  fānyì chéng  ―  to translate into
        ―  kànchéng  ―  to regard as; to mistake as
        ―  tīng chéng  ―  to mishear as
      衰變206衰变206  ―  shuāibiàn chéng qiān 206  ―  to decay into 206Pb
    朋友朋友  ―  Liǎng rén chéng le péngyǒu.  ―  The two became friends.
    我們學生培養理想道德文化 [MSC, trad.]
    我们学生培养理想道德文化 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen yào bǎ xuéshēng péiyǎng chéng yǒu lǐxiǎng, yǒu dàodé, yǒu wénhuà de rén. [Pinyin]
    We have to nurture students into people with ideals, morals and education.
    搵工 [Cantonese, trad.]
    揾工 [Cantonese, simp.]
    nei5 wan2 gung1 wan2 seng4 dim2 aa3? [Jyutping]
    How's the job hunting going?
    琴日蛋糕 [Cantonese, trad.]
    琴日蛋糕 [Cantonese, simp.]
    kam4 jat6 go3 daan6 gou1 zing2 seng4 dim2 aa3? [Jyutping]
    How did the cake from yesterday go?
  4. achievement; successful completion; positive result
    大功告  ―  dàgōnggàochéng  ―  (of a project, work, etc.) to be completed
      ―  shǒuchéng  ―  to maintain the achievements of one's predecessors
    坐享其  ―  zuòxiǎngqíchéng  ―  to sit idle and enjoy the fruits of others' work
  5. (in compounds) fully developed; fully grown
      ―  chéngrén  ―  adult
      ―  chéngchóng  ―  imago
  6. fixed; ready-made
      ―  chéng  ―  chengyu (a certain kind of Chinese set phrase)
      ―  chéngjiàn  ―  preconceived idea; preconception
      ―  chéng  ―  ready-made clothes
  7. to reach a certain level; to amount to
    購買购买  ―  chéngpī gòumǎi  ―  to buy in batches
    千上萬千上万  ―  chéngqiānshàngwàn  ―  by the thousands and tens of thousands
      ―  chéngshuāngchéngduì  ―  forming pairs
  8. to be all right
      ―  Nǐ bù qù kě bù chéng.  ―  No, you must go.
  9. capable
  10. one tenth; ten percent
      ―  sān chéng  ―  three tenths (30%)
    [Cantonese]  ―  ng5 sing4 bun3 [Jyutping]  ―  5.5 tenths (55%)
      ―  chéng jiǔ  ―  8.9 tenths (89%)
  11. (literary) to make peace
  12. 73rd tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "completion" (𝍎)
  13. (Cantonese) entire
    [Cantonese]  ―  seng4 faai3 juk6 [Jyutping]  ―  entire piece of meat
    [Cantonese]  ―  seng4 zek3 gau2 gam2 [Jyutping]  ―  entirely like a dog
    [Cantonese]  ―  seng4 gin6 si6 [Jyutping]  ―  the entire matter
  14. (Cantonese, Hokkien) almost; nearly; up to
    [Cantonese]  ―  gou1 zo2 seng4 sei3 cyun3 [Jyutping]  ―  grew almost four inches
    點鐘返屋企 [Cantonese, trad.]
    点钟返屋企 [Cantonese, simp.]
    From: 開放詞典开放词典 [Kaifang Cidian]
    seng4 jat1 dim2 zung1 zung6 m4 faan1 uk1 kei2 [Jyutping]
    nearly 1 o'clock, yet they won't return home
  15. (Cantonese) used as a verbal complement to indicate the completion of an action
    旅行 [Cantonese]  ―  heoi3 m4 seng4 leoi5 hang4 [Jyutping]  ―  to fail to go travelling
  16. a surname

Synonyms

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Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Vietnamese: thành ()

Others:

  • Zhuang: cingz (tenth)

References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai  
Kyūjitai
[1][2]

成
&#x2F8B2;
or
+&#xFE00;?
 
成󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
成󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji

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(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form 成)

  1. to become
  2. to do something

Readings

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Compounds

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References

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  1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア [Kanjipedia]‎[1] (in Japanese), The Japan Kanji Aptitude Testing Foundation, 2015–2024
  2. ^ Haga, Gōtarō (1914) 漢和大辞書 [The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Fourth edition, Tōkyō: Kōbunsha, →DOI, page 912 (paper), page 506 (digital)

Korean

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 이룰 (irul seong))

  1. Hanja form? of (accomplishment).

Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: thành, thình

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References

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