U+67D4, 柔
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-67D4

[U+67D3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+67D5]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹木 (NHD), four-corner 17904, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 519, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14622
  • Dae Jaweon: page 907, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1192, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+67D4

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *mlju): phonetic (OC *mu) + semantic (tree) – wood soft enough that it can easily be cut.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐou³⁵/
Harbin /ʐou²⁴/
Tianjin /iou⁴⁵/
/ʐou⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʐou⁴²/
Qingdao /iou⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐou⁴²/
Xi'an /ʐou²⁴/
Xining /ʐɯ²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʐəu⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐou⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤu⁵¹/
Wuhan /nəu²¹³/
Chengdu /zəu³¹/
Guiyang /zəu²¹/
Kunming /ʐəu³¹/
Nanjing /ʐəɯ²⁴/
Hefei /ʐɯ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zəu¹¹/
Pingyao /ʐəu¹³/
Hohhot /ʐəu³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zɤ²³/
Suzhou /zɤ¹³/
Hangzhou /zei²¹³/
Wenzhou /jɤu³¹/
Hui Shexian /iu⁴⁴/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /iəu¹³/
Xiangtan /iəɯ¹²/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /iu¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒiu¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐu²¹/
Nanning /jɐu²¹/
Hong Kong /jɐu²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liu³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ieu⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iu²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zĩu⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ziu²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiu/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑiəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵuw/
Li
Rong
/ȵiu/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
róu
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
róu
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*nu/
English soft

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8825
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mlju/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. soft; supple
  2. to soften
  3. gentle; pliant
  4. to make gentle
  5. () Short for 柔佛 (Róufó, “Johor”).

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (じゅう) ()
  • Korean: (, yu)
  • Vietnamese: nhu ()

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
じゅう
Grade: S
kan’on

/d͡ʑɨu//d͡ʑuː//ʑuː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ȵɨu).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

AffixEdit

(じゅう) (じう (ziu)?

  1. gentle, soft, supple
  2. calm, gentle, mild, peaceful
  3. calm, relieve, soften
  4. martial art involving gentleness, such as jujitsu or judo
Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

(じゅう) (じう (ziu)?

  1. gentleness, softness, suppleness; also, such an object
Derived termsEdit
IdiomsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
にゅう
Grade: S
goon

/nɨu//ɲuː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ȵɨu).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

PronunciationEdit

AffixEdit

(にゅう) (nyūにう (niu)?

  1. gentle, supple, weak
  2. kindhearted
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
やわ
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

/jaɸa//jawa/

Possibly a back-formation of 柔柔 (yawayawa, soft, supple).

PronunciationEdit

Adjectival nounEdit

(やわ) (yawaやは (yafa)? -na (adnominal (やわ) (yawa na), adverbial (やわ) (yawa ni))

  1. weak
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
やわ(ら)
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see 柔ら.
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

(The following entry is uncreated: 柔ら.)

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(yu) (hangeul , revised yu, McCune–Reischauer yu, Yale yu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: nhu

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.