U+67D4, 柔
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-67D4

[U+67D3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+67D5]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 75, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 弓竹木 (NHD), four-corner 17904, composition )

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 519, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14622
  • Dae Jaweon: page 907, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1192, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+67D4

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *mlju): phonetic (OC *mu) + semantic (tree) – wood soft enough that it can easily be cut.

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *now (tender; soft), which has also been compared to (OC *njonʔ, “soft”), (OC *njewɢ, “weak”), (OC *njuɡ, “meat”), (OC *noːls, *njo, “cowardly”), (OC *njɯmʔ, “weak”) (STEDT; Schuessler, 2007).

“ronto-”
Phono-semantic matching of English ronto-. Coined by the China National Committee for Terminology in Science and Technology and the State Administration for Market Regulation on World Metrology Day in 2023 (20 May 2023).

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐou³⁵/
Harbin /ʐou²⁴/
Tianjin /iou⁴⁵/
/ʐou⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʐou⁴²/
Qingdao /iou⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐou⁴²/
Xi'an /ʐou²⁴/
Xining /ʐɯ²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʐəu⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐou⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤu⁵¹/
Wuhan /nəu²¹³/
Chengdu /zəu³¹/
Guiyang /zəu²¹/
Kunming /ʐəu³¹/
Nanjing /ʐəɯ²⁴/
Hefei /ʐɯ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zəu¹¹/
Pingyao /ʐəu¹³/
Hohhot /ʐəu³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zɤ²³/
Suzhou /zɤ¹³/
Hangzhou /zei²¹³/
Wenzhou /jɤu³¹/
Hui Shexian /iu⁴⁴/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /iəu¹³/
Xiangtan /iəɯ¹²/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /iu¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒiu¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐu²¹/
Nanning /jɐu²¹/
Hong Kong /jɐu²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liu³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ieu⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iu²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zĩu⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ziu²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter nyuw
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiu/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑiəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵuw/
Li
Rong
/ȵiu/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
róu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jau4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
róu
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*nu/
English soft

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8825
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mlju/

Definitions edit

  1. soft; supple
  2. to soften
  3. gentle; pliant
  4. to make gentle
  5. () Short for 柔佛 (Róufó, “Johor”).
  6. (Mainland China) ronto- (SI unit prefix)
    Synonym: (róng) (Taiwan)

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (じゅう) ()
  • Korean: 유(柔) (yu)
  • Vietnamese: nhu ()

Compounds edit

See also edit

SI prefix
Last Next
/ // //

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
じゅう
Grade: S
kan’on

/d͡ʑɨu//d͡ʑuː//ʑuː/

From Middle Chinese (MC nyuw).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation edit

Affix edit

(じゅう) (じう (ziu)?

  1. gentle, soft, supple
  2. calm, gentle, mild, peaceful
  3. calm, relieve, soften
  4. martial art involving gentleness, such as jujitsu or judo
Derived terms edit

Noun edit

(じゅう) (じう (ziu)?

  1. gentleness, softness, suppleness; also, such an object
Derived terms edit
Idioms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
にゅう
Grade: S
goon

/nɨu//ɲuː/

From Middle Chinese (MC nyuw).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation edit

Affix edit

(にゅう) (nyūにう (niu)?

  1. gentle, supple, weak
  2. kindhearted
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
やわ
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

/jaɸa//jawa/

Possibly a back-formation of 柔柔 (yawayawa, soft, supple).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

(やわ) (yawaやは (yafa)?-na (adnominal (やわ) (yawa na), adverbial (やわ) (yawa ni))

  1. weak
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
やわ(ら)
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry: 柔ら

(The following entry is uncreated: 柔ら.)

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(yu) (hangeul , revised yu, McCune–Reischauer yu, Yale yu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: nhu

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.