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U+6728, 木
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6728

[U+6727]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6729]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 木 (D), four-corner 40900, composition𠆢)

  1. Kangxi radical #75, .

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 509, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 888, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1149, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+6728

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*moːɡ
*moːɡ
*taːw, *moːɡ
*moːɡ
*moːɡ

Pictogram (象形) – a tree: branches on top, roots on the bottom (more visible in earlier forms).

EtymologyEdit

No known cognate exists. It can perhaps be compared with Proto-Karen *məŋᴮ (trunk (of a tree); firewood) (Starostin) or Proto-Lolo-Burmese *ʔmuk (stump (of a tree)) (Schuessler, 2007).

The common Sino-Tibetan root for “tree; wood” is *siŋ ~ sik, represented by (OC *siŋ, “firewood”).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ba̍k - vernacular;
  • bo̍k - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mu⁵¹/
    Harbin /mu⁵³/
    Tianjin /mu⁵³/
    Jinan /mu²¹/
    Qingdao /mu⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /mu²⁴/
    Xi'an /mu²¹/
    Xining /mv̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /mu¹³/
    Lanzhou /mu¹³/
    Ürümqi /mu²¹³/
    Wuhan /mu²¹³/
    /moŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /mu³¹/
    /mu¹³/
    Guiyang /mu²¹/
    Kunming /mu³¹/
    Nanjing /muʔ⁵/
    Hefei /məʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /məʔ²/
    Pingyao /mʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /mu⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /moʔ¹/
    Suzhou /moʔ³/
    Hangzhou /moʔ²/
    Wenzhou /mu²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /mɔ²²/
    Tunxi /mo¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /mo²⁴/
    Xiangtan /mo²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /muʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /muk̚¹/
    Taoyuan /muk̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mok̚²/
    Nanning /muk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /muk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bɔk̚⁵/
    /bak̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /muʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mu⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /bak̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /mok̚³/
    /vak̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (3)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /muk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /muk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /muk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /məwk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /muk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /muk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /muk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ muwk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.mˁok/
    English tree, wood

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9327
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*moːɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. tree
      Synonyms: (shù)
      /   ―  shù  ―  tree
    2. wood; timber
      /   ―  tou  ―  log
    3. wooden
    4. simple; plain; slow; emotionless
      • /   ―    ―  plain spoken, slow and inarticulate
    5. coffin
      •   ―  guān  ―  coffin
      •   ―  jiù  ―  to die (to enter one's coffin)
    6. (Mandarin, neologism, slang) Eye dialect spelling of .
        ―  yǒuyǒu  ―  innit, damn right
    7. numb
        ―    ―  numb, insensitive

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    ⟨ki2 → */kɨ//ki/

    From Old Japanese (ki2), from Proto-Japonic *kəy. Cognate with Proto-Ryukyuan *ke, whence Southern Amami-Oshima けぃー (kʰɨː), Okinawan きー (kiː), Kunigami きー (kʰiː), Miyako きー (kiː), Yaeyama きー (kiː) and Yonaguni きー (kʰiː).

    Likely developed from fusion of older form (ko, see below) + (i, emphatic nominative particle), similar to the sound changes at work in (kamu → kami, Shinto deity).[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ki)

    1. a tree or shrub
    2. wood, timber, lumber
    3. (graph theory, computer science) a tree (data structure)
    4. (theater, sumo, etc.) a clapper used to signal the opening or closing of a match or play
    IdiomsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨ko2 → */kə//ko/

    From Old Japanese (ko2), from Proto-Japonic *kə.

    Likely the original form of ki above. Obsolete in modern Japanese, never found in isolation; only found in compounds and certain idioms.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ko)

    1. Combining form of (ki) above
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    もく
    Grade: 1
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC muk̚). The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the original borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Compare modern Cantonese (muk6).

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (wood grain):

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana もく, rōmaji moku)

    1. a tree
    2. Short for 木曜日 (mokuyōbi): Thursday
    3. wood grain
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ぼく
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC muk̚). The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Compare literary Min Nan (bo̍k).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ぼく, rōmaji boku)

    1. a tree; more specifically, a living tree
    2. the bent and gnarled trunk or roots of an old tree
    3. wood, lumber
    4. something made of wood
    5. in ancient China, a wooden musical instrument

    AdjectiveEdit

    (-na inflection, hiragana ぼく, rōmaji boku)

    1. (derogatory) wooden, as of a person's character or behavior
    2. (derogatory) wooden, as of a person's mental abilities: blockheaded, stupid, dimwitted
    InflectionEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 Pellard, Thomas (2012), “日琉祖語の分岐年代”, in 琉球諸語と古代日本語に関する比較言語学的研究」ワークショップ[1], page 6
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 나무 (namu mok))

    1. (나무 목, namu-): wood
    2. (as an abbreviation) Thursday

    Old JapaneseEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Proto-Japonic *kəy. Compare Middle Chinese (MCX).

    Likely developed from fusion of older form (ko2, see below) + (i(2), emphatic nominative particle), similar to the sound changes at work in (kamu → kami2, Shinto deity).[1]

    NounEdit

    (ki2) (kana )

    1. a tree or shrub
    2. wood, timber, lumber
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (ki)

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Proto-Japonic *kə. Compare Middle Chinese (MC hɨʌX).

    Likely the original form of ⟨ki2 above. Never found in isolation.[1]

    NounEdit

    (ko2) (kana )

    1. Combining form of (ki2) above
    Derived termsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (ko)

    Etymology 3Edit

    Analysis in the Nihon Shoki (720 CE) shows that this variation of ⟨ki2 is not limited to Eastern dialects.

    NounEdit

    (ke2) (kana )

    1. (regional, Northern Eastern Old Japanese, Southern Eastern Old Japanese) Same as (ki2) above
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4375), text here
        麻都能乃奈美多流美礼波伊波妣等乃和例乎美於久流等多多理之母己呂
        matu no2 ke2 no2 nami1taru mi1reba ipabi1to2 no2 ware wo mi1okuru to2 tatari si moko2ro2
        Looking at the pine trees all in a row, they were just like the people from the household standing to see me off
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 Pellard, Thomas (2012), “日琉祖語の分岐年代”, in 琉球諸語と古代日本語に関する比較言語学的研究」ワークショップ[2], page 6

    VietnameseEdit