See also: , , and
U+6728, 木
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6728

[U+6727]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6729]
U+2F4A, ⽊
KANGXI RADICAL TREE

[U+2F49]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F4B]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative forms

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  • In Hong Kong and Taiwan, when is at the bottom of a character, it is written as without a hook instead of itself.

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 75, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input (D), four-corner 40900, composition 𠆢)

  1. Kangxi radical #75, .

Derived characters

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Descendants

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  • Japanese: 𛀧 (Hentaigana)

References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 509, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 888, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1149, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+6728

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Pictogram (象形) – a tree: branches on top, roots on the bottom (more visible in earlier forms).

Etymology

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No known cognate exists. It can perhaps be compared with Proto-Karen *məŋᴮ (trunk (of a tree); firewood) (Starostin) or Proto-Lolo-Burmese *ʔmuk (stump (of a tree)) (Schuessler, 2007).

The common Sino-Tibetan root for “tree; wood” is *siŋ ~ sik, represented by (OC *siŋ, “firewood”).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • ba̍k - vernacular;
  • bo̍k - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /mu⁵¹/
Harbin /mu⁵³/
Tianjin /mu⁵³/
Jinan /mu²¹/
Qingdao /mu⁴²/
Zhengzhou /mu²⁴/
Xi'an /mu²¹/
Xining /mv̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /mu¹³/
Lanzhou /mu¹³/
Ürümqi /mu²¹³/
Wuhan /mu²¹³/
/moŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /mu³¹/
/mu¹³/
Guiyang /mu²¹/
Kunming /mu³¹/
Nanjing /muʔ⁵/
Hefei /məʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /məʔ²/
Pingyao /mʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /mu⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /moʔ¹/
Suzhou /moʔ³/
Hangzhou /moʔ²/
Wenzhou /mu²¹³/
Hui Shexian /mɔ²²/
Tunxi /mo¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /mo²⁴/
Xiangtan /mo²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /muʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /muk̚¹/
Taoyuan /muk̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mok̚²/
Nanning /muk̚²²/
Hong Kong /muk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /bɔk̚⁵/
/bak̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /muʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /mu⁴²/
Shantou (Teochew) /bak̚⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /mok̚³/
/vak̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (3)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter muwk
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/muk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/muk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/muk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/məwk̚/
Li
Rong
/muk̚/
Wang
Li
/muk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/muk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
muk6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ muwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.mˁok/
English tree, wood

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9327
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*moːɡ/

Definitions

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  1. tree; woody plant
    Synonym: (shù)
      ―  shù  ―  tree
      ―  guàn  ―  shrub
    芍藥芍药  ―  sháoyào  ―  tree peony
  2. wood; timber (Classifier: c;  c;  c;  c)
      ―  tou  ―  log
  3. wooden
      ―    ―  wooden house
    桌子 [MSC, trad.]
    桌子 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè zhāng zhuōzi shì de. [Pinyin]
    This table is made of wood.
  4. (literary or in compounds) coffin
      ―  jiù  ―  to die (literally, “to enter one's coffin”)
  5. simple; plain; slow; emotionless; wooden
      ―    ―  plain spoken, slow and inarticulate
  6. numb
      ―    ―  numb, insensitive
    手指手指  ―  Tā shǒuzhǐ dòng le.  ―  Her fingers were numb with cold.
  7. a surname
  8. (Mandarin, neologism, slang) Eye dialect spelling of .
      ―  yǒuyǒu  ―  innit, damn right

Synonyms

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  • (tree):
  • (wood):
  • (coffin):

Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():

Other:

Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(uncommon)

⟨ki2 → */kɨ//ki/

From Old Japanese (ki2), from Proto-Japonic *kəy. Cognate with Proto-Ryukyuan *ke. For the vowel alternation, see Wiktionary:About Proto-Japonic § Standalone forms and combining forms.

First attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (ki

  1. a tree or shrub
  2. wood, timber, lumber
  3. (graph theory, computer science) a tree (data structure)
  4. (theater, sumo, etc.) a clapper used to signal the opening or closing of a match or play
Idioms
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

⟨ko2 → */kə//ko/

From Old Japanese (ko2).

Likely the original form of ki above. Obsolete in modern Japanese, never found in isolation; only found in compounds and certain idioms.[3]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (ko

  1. Combining form of (き, ki): tree; wood
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
もく
Grade: 1
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC muwk). The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the original borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Compare modern Cantonese (muk6).

Alternative forms

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  • (wood grain):

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(もく) (moku

  1. a tree
  2. Short for 木曜日 (mokuyōbi): Thursday
  3. wood grain
Derived terms
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Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
ぼく
Grade: 1
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC muwk). The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Compare literary Min Nan (bo̍k).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ぼく) (boku

  1. a tree; more specifically, a living tree
  2. the bent and gnarled trunk or roots of an old tree
  3. wood, lumber
  4. something made of wood
  5. in ancient China, a wooden musical instrument

Adjective

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(ぼく) (boku-na (adnominal (ぼく) (boku na), adverbial (ぼく) (boku ni))

  1. (derogatory) wooden, as of a person's character or behavior
  2. (derogatory) wooden, as of a person's mental abilities: blockheaded, stupid, dimwitted
Inflection
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References

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  1. ^ 木・樹”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Pellard, Thomas (2012) “日琉祖語の分岐年代”, in 琉球諸語と古代日本語に関する比較言語学的研究」ワークショップ[2], page 6

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC muwk).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 목〮 (Yale: mwók)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[4] 나모 (Yale: nàmwò) 목〮 (Yale: mwók)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 나무 (namu mok))

  1. Hanja form? of (tree; wood; wooden). [affix]
  2. Hanja form? of (Short for 목요일(木曜日) (mogyoil, Thursday).).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [5]

Okinawan

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Kanji

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(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Etymology

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/ki//kiː/

From Proto-Ryukyuan *ke, from Proto-Japonic *kəy.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(きー) (

  1. a tree

References

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  1. ^ National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (2001 [1963]) 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawa-go Jiten) [Dictionary of the Okinawan Language] (in Japanese), Tokyo (東京): Zaimushō Insatsu Kyoku (財務省印刷局)

Old Japanese

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Japonic *kəy.

This term had then came to be used as 借訓 (shakkun) kanji for ki2.

Noun

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(ki2) (kana )

  1. a tree or shrub
  2. wood, timber, lumber

Phonogram

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(ki2)

  1. Denotes phonographic syllable ki2.
    Synonyms: , ,
Descendants
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  • Japanese: (ki)

Etymology 2

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Likely the original form of ⟨ki2 above. Never found in isolation.[1]

Noun

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(ko2) (kana )

  1. Combining form of (ki2) above
Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • Japanese: (ko)

Etymology 3

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May ultimately be from Proto-Japonic *kəy. Analysis in the Nihon Shoki (720 CE) shows that this variation of ⟨ki2 is not limited to Eastern dialects.

Noun

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(ke2) (kana )

  1. (regional, Northern Eastern Old Japanese, Southern Eastern Old Japanese) Same as (ki2) above
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 20, poem 4375:
      , text here
      麻都能乃奈美多流美礼波伊波妣等乃和例乎美於久流等多多理之母己呂
      matu no2 ke2 no2 nami1taru mi1reba ipabi1to2 no2 ware wo mi1okuru to2 tatari si moko2ro2
      Looking at the pine trees all in a row, they were just like the people from the household standing to see me off
Derived terms
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References

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  1. ^ Pellard, Thomas (2012) “日琉祖語の分岐年代”, in 琉球諸語と古代日本語に関する比較言語学的研究」ワークショップ[3], page 6

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: mộc ((mạc)(bốc)(thiết))[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: mọc[1][2][3][4][5], mốc[1][2][3][4][5], mộc[1][2][3][5], móc[1][3][4][5], mục[3][4][5], chúc[2]

  1. chữ Hán form of mộc (tree; wood).

Compounds

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References

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