See also: , , and
U+6728, 木
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6728

[U+6727]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6729]
U+2F4A, ⽊
KANGXI RADICAL TREE

[U+2F49]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F4B]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative forms edit

  • In Hong Kong and Taiwan, when is at the bottom of a character, it is written as without a hook instead of itself.

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 75, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input (D), four-corner 40900, composition 𠆢)

  1. Kangxi radical #75, .

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

  • Japanese: 𛀧 (Hentaigana)

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 509, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 888, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1149, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+6728

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Pictogram (象形) – a tree: branches on top, roots on the bottom (more visible in earlier forms).

Etymology edit

No known cognate exists. It can perhaps be compared with Proto-Karen *məŋᴮ (trunk (of a tree); firewood) (Starostin) or Proto-Lolo-Burmese *ʔmuk (stump (of a tree)) (Schuessler, 2007).

The common Sino-Tibetan root for “tree; wood” is *siŋ ~ sik, represented by (OC *siŋ, “firewood”).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • ba̍k - vernacular;
  • bo̍k - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mu⁵¹/
    Harbin /mu⁵³/
    Tianjin /mu⁵³/
    Jinan /mu²¹/
    Qingdao /mu⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /mu²⁴/
    Xi'an /mu²¹/
    Xining /mv̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /mu¹³/
    Lanzhou /mu¹³/
    Ürümqi /mu²¹³/
    Wuhan /mu²¹³/
    /moŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /mu³¹/
    /mu¹³/
    Guiyang /mu²¹/
    Kunming /mu³¹/
    Nanjing /muʔ⁵/
    Hefei /məʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /məʔ²/
    Pingyao /mʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /mu⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /moʔ¹/
    Suzhou /moʔ³/
    Hangzhou /moʔ²/
    Wenzhou /mu²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /mɔ²²/
    Tunxi /mo¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /mo²⁴/
    Xiangtan /mo²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /muʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /muk̚¹/
    Taoyuan /muk̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mok̚²/
    Nanning /muk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /muk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bɔk̚⁵/
    /bak̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /muʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mu⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /bak̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /mok̚³/
    /vak̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (3)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter muwk
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /muk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /muk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /muk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /məwk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /muk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /muk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /muk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    muk6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ muwk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.mˁok/
    English tree, wood

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9327
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*moːɡ/

    Definitions edit

    1. tree; woody plant
      Synonym: (shù)
        ―  shù  ―  tree
        ―  guàn  ―  shrub
      芍藥芍药  ―  sháoyào  ―  tree peony
    2. wood; timber
        ―  tou  ―  log
    3. wooden
      桌子桌子  ―  Zhè zhāng zhuōzǐ shì de.  ―  This table is made of wood
    4. simple; plain; slow; emotionless; wooden
        ―    ―  plain spoken, slow and inarticulate
    5. coffin
        ―  guān  ―  coffin
        ―  jiù  ―  to die (to enter one's coffin)
    6. (Mandarin, neologism, slang) Eye dialect spelling of .
        ―  yǒuyǒu  ―  innit, damn right
    7. numb
        ―    ―  numb, insensitive
      手指手指  ―  Tā shǒuzhǐ dòng le.  ―  Her fingers were numb with cold.

    Synonyms edit

    • (tree):
    • (wood):
    • (coffin):

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Other:

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    (uncommon)

    ⟨ki2 → */kɨ//ki/

    From Old Japanese (ki2), from Proto-Japonic *kəy. Cognate with Proto-Ryukyuan *ke. For the vowel alternation, see WT:AJPX#Standalone forms and combining forms.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    () (ki

    1. a tree or shrub
    2. wood, timber, lumber
    3. (graph theory, computer science) a tree (data structure)
    4. (theater, sumo, etc.) a clapper used to signal the opening or closing of a match or play
    Idioms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨ko2 → */kə//ko/

    From Old Japanese (ko2).

    Likely the original form of ki above. Obsolete in modern Japanese, never found in isolation; only found in compounds and certain idioms.[2]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    () (ko

    1. Combining form of (き, ki): tree; wood
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    もく
    Grade: 1
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC muwk). The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the original borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Compare modern Cantonese (muk6).

    Alternative forms edit

    • (wood grain):

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (もく) (moku

    1. a tree
    2. Short for 木曜日 (mokuyōbi): Thursday
    3. wood grain
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 4 edit

    Kanji in this term
    ぼく
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC muwk). The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Compare literary Min Nan (bo̍k).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ぼく) (boku

    1. a tree; more specifically, a living tree
    2. the bent and gnarled trunk or roots of an old tree
    3. wood, lumber
    4. something made of wood
    5. in ancient China, a wooden musical instrument

    Adjective edit

    (ぼく) (boku-na (adnominal (ぼく) (boku na), adverbial (ぼく) (boku ni))

    1. (derogatory) wooden, as of a person's character or behavior
    2. (derogatory) wooden, as of a person's mental abilities: blockheaded, stupid, dimwitted
    Inflection edit

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ Pellard, Thomas (2012), “日琉祖語の分岐年代”, in 琉球諸語と古代日本語に関する比較言語学的研究」ワークショップ[1], page 6

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC muwk).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 목〮 (Yale: mwók)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[4] 나모 (Yale: nàmwò) 목〮 (Yale: mwók)

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 나무 (namu mok))

    1. Hanja form? of (tree; wood; wooden). [affix]
    2. Hanja form? of (Short for 목요일(木曜日) (mogyoil, Thursday).).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [5]

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    /ki//kiː/

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *ke, from Proto-Japonic *kəy.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (hiragana きー, rōmaji )

    1. a tree

    References edit

    1. ^ 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawago Jiten, “Okinawan Dictionary”)[2], 1963

    Old Japanese edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Proto-Japonic *kəy.

    This term had then came to be used as 借訓 (shakkun) kanji for ki2.

    Noun edit

    (ki2) (kana )

    1. a tree or shrub
    2. wood, timber, lumber

    Phonogram edit

    (ki2)

    1. Denotes phonographic syllable ki2.
      Synonyms: , ,
    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (ki)

    Etymology 2 edit

    Likely the original form of ⟨ki2 above. Never found in isolation.[1]

    Noun edit

    (ko2) (kana )

    1. Combining form of (ki2) above
    Derived terms edit
    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (ko)

    Etymology 3 edit

    May ultimately be from Proto-Japonic *kəy. Analysis in the Nihon Shoki (720 CE) shows that this variation of ⟨ki2 is not limited to Eastern dialects.

    Noun edit

    (ke2) (kana )

    1. (regional, Northern Eastern Old Japanese, Southern Eastern Old Japanese) Same as (ki2) above
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū, (book 20, poem 4375):
        , text here
        麻都能乃奈美多流美礼波伊波妣等乃和例乎美於久流等多多理之母己呂
        matu no2 ke2 no2 nami1taru mi1reba ipabi1to2 no2 ware wo mi1okuru to2 tatari si moko2ro2
        Looking at the pine trees all in a row, they were just like the people from the household standing to see me off
    Derived terms edit

    References edit

    1. ^ Pellard, Thomas (2012), “日琉祖語の分岐年代”, in 琉球諸語と古代日本語に関する比較言語学的研究」ワークショップ[3], page 6

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: mộc ((mạc)(bốc)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: mọc[1][2][3][4][5], mốc[1][2][3][4][5], mộc[1][2][3][5], móc[1][3][4][5], mục[3][4][5], chúc[2]

    1. chữ Hán form of mộc (tree; wood).

    Compounds edit

    References edit