(common “Jōyō” kanji)
- gram, gramme
/kapara/ → /kaɸara/ → /kawara/
Probably from Sanskrit कपाल (kapāla, “cup, bowl, skull”), possibly via Middle Chinese 迦波羅 (MC kˠa puɑ lɑ). Along with Buddhism, roof tiles came to Japan in the Asuka period.
Cognate with 骨, 䯊 (kawara, “a bone, particularly a covering bone such as a skull or kneecap”).
Folk etymologies include:
- From 変わら (kawara), the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of verb 変わる (kawaru, “to change”), from the idea that tiles were produced by changing the clay into pottery through firing
瓦 • (kawara) (historical kana かはら)
- roof tile
Abbreviation of transliterated ateji (当て字) spelling 瓦蘭姆 (guramu), attested in the Meiji period. The term グラム (guramu) itself was borrowed from either English gram or French gramme.
Once considered a 国字 (kokuji, “national character”, a kanji coined in Japan), another example being 瓲 (ton, “ton, tonne”).
瓦 • (guramu)
- (dated) symbol for gram, gramme
Terms derived from グラム
- 瓱 (miriguramu, “milligram, milligramme”)
- 甅 (senchiguramu, “centigram, centigramme”)
- 瓰 (deshiguramu, “decigram, decigramme”)
- 瓧 (dekaguramu, “decagram, decagramme”)
- 瓸 (hekutoguramu, “hectogram, hectogramme”)
- 瓩 (kiroguramu, “kilogram, kilogramme”)
From Middle Chinese 瓦 (MC ŋˠuaX, ŋˠuaH).
瓦 • (ga) (historical kana ぐわ)
- roof tile
- Used phonetically.
- 瓦斯 (gasu): gas