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U+74E6, 瓦
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-74E6

[U+74E5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+74E7]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 98 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一女弓戈 (MVNI), four-corner 10717)

  1. Kangxi radical #98, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 747, character 36
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21438
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1156, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1421, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+74E6

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𪜂

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋʷraːlʔ, *ŋʷraːls
*ŋʷraːlʔ

Pictogram (象形) – fired earthenware pottery, or a tile.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • nguâ - colloquial (“tile”);
  • nguā - literary (“watt”).
Note:
  • hiā/huā/hiǎ/hǒa - vernacular;
  • góa - literary;
  • óa - literary (Zhangzhou, Taiwan), common variant (Xiamen, Quanzhou).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ua²¹⁴/
Harbin /ua²¹³/
/ua⁵³/
Tianjin /vɑ¹³/
Jinan /va⁵⁵/
Qingdao /va⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ua⁵³/
Xi'an /ua⁵³/
Xining /ua⁵³/
Yinchuan /va⁵³/ ~房
/va¹³/ ~刀
Lanzhou /va⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /va⁵¹/
Wuhan /ua⁴²/
Chengdu /ua⁵³/
Guiyang /ua⁴²/
Kunming /ua̠⁵³/
Nanjing /uɑ²¹²/
Hefei /ua²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /va⁵³/ 磚~
/va⁴⁵/ 泥~匠
Pingyao /uɑ⁵³/ 名詞
/uɑ³⁵/ 動詞
Hohhot /va⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ŋo²³/
Suzhou /ŋo³¹/
Hangzhou /ʔuɑ⁵³/
Wenzhou /ŋo³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ua³⁵/
/ŋa³⁵/
Tunxi /ŋɔ²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ua⁴¹/
Xiangtan /uɒ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /uɑ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ŋa³¹/
Taoyuan /ŋɑ³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋa²³/
Nanning /ŋa²⁴/
Hong Kong /ŋa¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gua⁵³/
/hia²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ua³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ua⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ua⁵³/
/hia³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hia³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (31)
Final () (99)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠuaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋʷᵚaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋuaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋwaɨX/
Li
Rong
/ŋuaX/
Wang
Li
/ŋwaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋwaX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngwæX ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.ŋʷˤra[j]ʔ/
English roof tile

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 12601
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋʷraːlʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. earthenware; earthenware pottery
  2. tile (roof covering)
  3. (historical) back of shield (arching, as if it is covered by tile)
  4. (historical) amusement park; market
  5. (historical, dialectal) protecting plate of wheel
  6. (music) Alternative name for (, “earth”).
  7. Ancient placename in modern Hua County, Henan.
  8. Short for 瓦特 (Wǎtè, “watt”).
  9. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (31)
Final () (99)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠuaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋʷᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋuaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋwaɨH/
Li
Rong
/ŋuaH/
Wang
Li
/ŋwaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋwaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 12603
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋʷraːls/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to tile; to cover with tiles

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. tile
  2. gram, gramme

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
かわら
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/kapara//kaɸara//kawara/

Probably from Sanskrit कपालः (kapāla, cup, bowl, skull),[1][2] possibly via 迦波羅 (MC kɨɑ|kˠa puɑ lɑ). Along with Buddhism, roof tiles came to Japan in the Asuka period.

Cognate with , (kawara, a bone, particularly a covering bone such as a skull or kneecap).

Folk etymologies include:

  • from 変わら (kawara), the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 変わる (kawaru, to change), from the idea that tiles were produced by changing the clay into pottery through firing

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かわら, rōmaji kawara, historical hiragana かはら)

  1. roof tile

Etymology 2Edit

Abbreviation of transliterated ateji (当て字) spelling  () () () (guramu), attested in the Meiji period. The term グラム (guramu) itself was borrowed from either English gram or French gramme.[1][2]

Once considered a 国字 (kokuji, national character, a kanji coined in Japan), another example being  (トン) (ton, ton, tonne).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(katakana グラム, rōmaji guramu)

  1. (dated) symbol for gram, gramme

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(wa) (hangeul , revised wa, McCune-Reischauer wa, Yale wa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ngõa, ngói, ngoa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.