瓦 (radical 98, 瓦+0, 5 strokes in Chinese in traditional Chinese, 4 strokes in mainland China, 5 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 一女弓戈 (MVNI), four-corner 10717, composition ⿵⿸⿱一𠄌㇈丶(G) or ⿵⿸⿱丅㇀㇈丶(HTJKV))
- Kangxi radical #98, ⽡.
- KangXi: page 747, character 36
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21438
- Dae Jaweon: page 1156, character 5
- Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1421, character 3
- Unihan data for U+74E6
(common “Jōyō” kanji)
- gram, gramme
/kapara/ → /kaɸara/ → /kawara/
Probably from Sanskrit कपाल (kapāla, “cup, bowl, skull”), possibly via 迦波羅 (MC kˠa puɑ lɑ). Along with Buddhism, roof tiles came to Japan in the Asuka period.
Cognate with 骨, 䯊 (kawara, “a bone, particularly a covering bone such as a skull or kneecap”).
Folk etymologies include:
- from 変わら (kawara), the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of verb 変わる (kawaru, “to change”), from the idea that tiles were produced by changing the clay into pottery through firing
瓦 (hiragana かわら, rōmaji kawara, historical hiragana かはら)
- roof tile
Abbreviation of transliterated ateji (当て字) spelling 瓦蘭姆 (guramu), attested in the Meiji period. The term グラム (guramu) itself was borrowed from either English gram or French gramme.
Once considered a 国字 (kokuji, “national character”, a kanji coined in Japan), another example being 瓲 (ton, “ton, tonne”).
瓦 (katakana グラム, rōmaji guramu)
- (dated) symbol for gram, gramme
Terms derived from グラム
- 瓲 (miriguramu, “milligram, milligramme”)
- 甅 (senchiguramu, “centigram, centigramme”)
- 瓰 (deshiguramu, “decigram, decigramme”)
- 瓧 (dekaguramu, “decagram, decagramme”)
- 瓸 (hekutoguramu, “hectogram, hectogramme”)
- 瓩 (kiroguramu, “kilogram, kilogramme”)