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U+74E6, 瓦
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-74E6

[U+74E5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+74E7]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 98, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一女弓戈 (MVNI), four-corner 10717)

  1. Kangxi radical #98, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 747, character 36
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21438
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1156, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1421, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+74E6

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𪜂

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋʷraːlʔ, *ŋʷraːls
*ŋʷraːlʔ

Pictogram (象形) – fired earthenware pottery, or a tile.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • nguâ - colloquial (“tile”);
  • nguā - literary (“watt”).
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hiā/huā/hiǎ/hǒa - vernacular;
    • góa - literary;
    • óa - literary (Zhangzhou, Taiwan), common variant (Xiamen, Quanzhou).
    Note:
    • hia6 - vernacular;
    • ua2 - literary;
    • uag6 - vernacular (“watt”);
    • ua1 - literary (“watt”).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ua²¹⁴/
    Harbin /ua²¹³/
    /ua⁵³/
    Tianjin /vɑ¹³/
    Jinan /va⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /va⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ua⁵³/
    Xi'an /ua⁵³/
    Xining /ua⁵³/
    Yinchuan /va⁵³/ ~房
    /va¹³/ ~刀
    Lanzhou /va⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /va⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ua⁴²/
    Chengdu /ua⁵³/
    Guiyang /ua⁴²/
    Kunming /ua̠⁵³/
    Nanjing /uɑ²¹²/
    Hefei /ua²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /va⁵³/ 磚~
    /va⁴⁵/ 泥~匠
    Pingyao /uɑ⁵³/ 名詞
    /uɑ³⁵/ 動詞
    Hohhot /va⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /ŋo²³/
    Suzhou /ŋo³¹/
    Hangzhou /ʔuɑ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ŋo³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /ua³⁵/
    /ŋa³⁵/
    Tunxi /ŋɔ²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ua⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /uɒ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /uɑ²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋa³¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋɑ³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋa²³/
    Nanning /ŋa²⁴/
    Hong Kong /ŋa¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gua⁵³/
    /hia²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ua³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ua⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ua⁵³/
    /hia³⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hia³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (99)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠuaX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋʷᵚaX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋuaX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋwaɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋuaX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋwaX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋwaX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngwæX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.ŋʷˤra[j]ʔ/
    English roof tile

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 12601
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋʷraːlʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. earthenware; earthenware pottery
    2. tile (roof covering)
    3. (historical) back of shield (arching, as if it is covered by tile)
    4. (historical) amusement park; market
    5. (historical, dialectal) protecting plate of wheel
    6. (music) Alternative name for (, “earth”).
    7. Ancient placename in modern Hua County, Henan.
    8. Short for 瓦特 (wǎtè, “watt”).
    9. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (99)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠuaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋʷᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋuaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋwaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋuaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋwaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋwaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 12603
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋʷraːls/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to tile; to cover with tiles

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. tile
    2. gram, gramme

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かわら
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    /kapara//kaɸara//kawara/

    Probably from Sanskrit कपालः (kapāla, cup, bowl, skull),[1][2] possibly via 迦波羅 (MC kɨɑ|kˠa puɑ lɑ). Along with Buddhism, roof tiles came to Japan in the Asuka period.

    Cognate with , (kawara, a bone, particularly a covering bone such as a skull or kneecap).

    Folk etymologies include:

    • from 変わら (kawara), the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 変わる (kawaru, to change), from the idea that tiles were produced by changing the clay into pottery through firing

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かわら, rōmaji kawara, historical hiragana かはら)

    1. roof tile

    Etymology 2Edit

    Abbreviation of transliterated ateji (当て字) spelling  () () () (guramu), attested in the Meiji period. The term グラム (guramu) itself was borrowed from either English gram or French gramme.[1][2]

    Once considered a 国字 (kokuji, national character, a kanji coined in Japan), another example being  (トン) (ton, ton, tonne).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (katakana グラム, rōmaji guramu)

    1. (dated) symbol for gram, gramme

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (wa) (hangeul , revised wa, McCune–Reischauer wa, Yale wa)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (ngõa, ngói, ngoa)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.