U+5BE1, 寡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BE1

[U+5BE0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BE2]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 40, +11, 14 strokes, cangjie input 十一金竹 (JMCH), four-corner 30227, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 290, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7286
  • Dae Jaweon: page 574, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 947, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5BE1

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠆣

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
           

In the bronze script from the Western Zhou period, it was originally an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (house) +  (head) — only one person in the house; alone.

In the bronze script from the Warring States period, two decorative strokes were added around . The seal script found in Shuowen adds two additional strokes, making the component under appear as and , leading Shuowen to erroneously interpret the character as an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (house) +  (to distribute).

EtymologyEdit

Related to (OC *kruːn, *kruːns, “widower”), (OC *kʷaː, “orphan; alone”) (Schuessler, 2007). Cognate with Tibetan དགོན་པ (dgon pa, solitary place; desert; wilderness), Tibetan སྒོས (sgos, private; individual).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • 2ko - vernacular;
  • 2kua - literary.
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (99)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠuaX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʷᵚaX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuaX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwaɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuaX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kwaX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kwaX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guǎ
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guǎ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwæX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[C.k]ʷˁraʔ/
    English few

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4400
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʷraːʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. few; scant
    2. widowed
    3. widow
    4. alone; friendless
    5. tasteless
      淨係好似 [Cantonese, trad.]
      净系好似 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Zing6 hai6 sik6 coi3 hou2 ci5 gwaa2 zo2 di1 wo3. [Jyutping]
      It's kind of tasteless to eat vegetables only.
    6. (Hokkien) some
      菜市仔青菜 [Taiwanese, trad.]
      菜市仔青菜 [Taiwanese, simp.]
      Góa khì chhài-chhī-á bé kóa chheⁿ-chhài. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
      I'm going to the market to buy some vegetables.

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kan’on

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

     () (ka)

    1. minority
       () ()って (しゅう) (せい)する
      ka o motte shū o seisuru
      Majority can be conquered by minority.
    AntonymsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    やもめ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Alternative formsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

     (やもめ) (yamome)

    1. widow
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (gwa) (hangeul , revised gwa, McCune–Reischauer kwa)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (quả, goá)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.