U+9AA8, 骨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9AA8

[U+9AA7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9AA9]
U+2FBB, ⾻
KANGXI RADICAL BONE

[U+2FBA]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FBC]
U+2EE3, ⻣
CJK RADICAL BONE

[U+2EE2]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2EE4]

Translingual edit

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
(Mainland China)
 
Stroke order
(Taiwan)
 
Stroke order
(Japan)
 

Alternative forms edit

  • In Traditional Chinese (Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau), Japanese kanji and Korean hanja, the inner component on the top of the character is positioned to the right () (), which is the orthodox form found in the historical Kangxi dictionary.
  • In mainland China (based on Xin Zixing (新字形) standardized form) and Vietnamese Nôm, the inner component on the top of the character is positioned to the left () ().
  • In mainland China (Xin Zixing), Hong Kong and Macau (Traditional Chinese), Japanese kanji, Korean hanja and Vietnamese Nôm, the bottom component is written in the form of (similar to but the leftmost stroke is vertical and not curved 丿), which is the orthodox form found in the Kangxi dictionary.
  • In Taiwan (Traditional Chinese), the bottom component is written in the form of (meat radical, similar to where the leftmost stroke is curved 丿 but the two horizontal strokes enclosed within are written instead).
  • Due to Han unification, this character may or may not appear different, depending on the fonts available:
    • Taiwan: ; Mainland China: ; Japan, Korea, Hong Kong and Macau: .

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 188, +0, 10 strokes in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 9 strokes in mainland China, cangjie input 月月月 (BBB), four-corner 77227, composition ⿱⿵⿰𠃍𠃍(GV) or ⿱⿵⿰𠃍⿰丨(HTJK))

  1. Kangxi radical #188, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №134

Derived characters edit

Further reading edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1447, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45098
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1973, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4406, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9AA8

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意): (skull) + (body).

Etymology 1 edit

trad.
simp. #

Usually related to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s/m/g-rus (bone), whence Tibetan རུས (rus), Nuosu (vup ddu), S'gaw Karen တၢ်ဃံ (ta̱xee), but there is no trace of a medial *r in Chinese (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • gǔ - usual pronunciation;
  • gū - used in some colloquial words, such as 骨朵兒 (“unbloomed flower”) and 骨碌 (“to roll”);
  • gú - used in some colloquial words, such as 骨頭 (“bone”).
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ku²¹⁴/
    /ku³⁵/
    Harbin /ku²¹³/
    Tianjin /ku¹³/ ~折
    /ku²¹/ ~頭
    Jinan /ku²¹³/
    Qingdao /ku⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ku²⁴/
    Xi'an /ku²¹/
    Xining /kv̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ku¹³/
    Lanzhou /ku¹³/
    Ürümqi /ku²¹³/
    Wuhan /ku²¹³/
    Chengdu /ku³¹/
    Guiyang /ku²¹/
    Kunming /ku³¹/
    Nanjing /kuʔ⁵/
    Hefei /kuəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /kuəʔ²/
    Pingyao /kuʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /kuəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /kuəʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /kuəʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /kuoʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /ky²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /kuʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /ku⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /ku²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ku²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /kuɨʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /kut̚¹/
    Taoyuan /kut̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kwɐt̚⁵/
    Nanning /kɛɐt̚⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kwɐt̚⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kut̚³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kɔuʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ko²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kuk̚²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /kut̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (56)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter kwot
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuət̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuot̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuət̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwət̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuət̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuət̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuət̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gu
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwat1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwot ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁut/
    English bone

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4321
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kuːd/
    Notes

    Definitions edit

    1. (anatomy) bone
    2. (anatomy) skeleton
    3. (figurative) frame; framework
    4. (figurative) moral character
    5. (Cantonese) sarcasm
      說話 [Cantonese, trad.]
      说话 [Cantonese, simp.]
      keoi5 geoi3 geoi3 syut3 waa6 dou1 jau5 gwat1 [Jyutping]
      All his sentences are sarcastic.
    6. a surname: Gu
    Synonyms edit
    • (moral character):

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    trad.
    simp. #
    alternative forms

    From English quarter.

    Pronunciation edit

    Definitions edit

    1. (Cantonese) quarter of an hour; 15 minutes (Classifier: c)
      [Cantonese]  ―  saam1 dim2 jat1 go3 gwat1 [Jyutping]  ―  quarter past three
      [Cantonese]  ―  ng5 dim2 saam1 go3 gwat1 [Jyutping]  ―  quarter to six (literally three quarters past five)
    2. (Cantonese) one fourth; a quarter

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. skeleton
    2. bone

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (hone): a bone.
    Kanji in this term
    ほね
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    /pone//ɸone//hone/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *pənay.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ほね) (hone

    1. bone

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    かわら
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    (rare)

    /kapara//kaɸara//kawara/

    Probably from Sanskrit कपाल (kapāla, cup, bowl, skull). Cognate with (kawara, tile, particularly for roofing or flooring).[2]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (かわら) (kawaraかはら (kafara)?

    1. (archaic, rare) a bone, particularly a covering bone such as a skull or kneecap

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    こつ
    Grade: 6
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC kwot, “bone”).

    The knack sense comes from the idea of the bones as the innermost core or essence of something.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (こつ) (kotsu

    1. remains, ashes
    2. knack, trick
      ネイルコツ
      neiru no kotsu
      tricks and tips for doing one's nails
    Alternative forms edit
    • (knack, trick): コツ (kotsu)

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kwot).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 고ᇙ〮 (Yale: kwólq)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] ᄲᅧ〮 (Yale: spyé) 골〮 (Yale: kwól)

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (ppyeo gol))

    1. Hanja form? of (bone).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pone, from earlier Proto-Japonic *pənay. Cognate with Japanese (hone, bone).

    Noun edit

    (ふに) (funi

    1. bone
    2. frame (of a sliding paper door, etc)
    3. stem, stalk

    Etymology 2 edit

    Ultimately from Middle Chinese (MC kwot, “bone”).

    Noun edit

    (くち) or (くし) (kuchi or kushi

    1. remains, ashes

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: cốt[1][2][3][4][5][6]
    : Nôm readings: cốt[1][2][3], cót[1][3], cút[1][3], cọt[3], gút[3]

    1. chữ Hán form of cốt (bone (compounds), extracted, condensed).

    References edit