U+9AA8, 骨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9AA8

[U+9AA7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9AA9]
U+2FBB, ⾻
KANGXI RADICAL BONE

[U+2FBA]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FBC]
U+2EE3, ⻣
CJK RADICAL BONE

[U+2EE2]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2EE4]

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
(Mainland China)
 
Stroke order
(Taiwan)
 
Stroke order
(Japan)
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • In Traditional Chinese (Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau), Japanese kanji and Korean hanja, the inner component on the top of the character is positioned to the right () (), which is the orthodox form found in the historical Kangxi dictionary.
  • In mainland China (based on Xin Zixing (新字形) standardized form) and Vietnamese Nôm, the inner component on the top of the character is positioned to the left () ().
  • In mainland China (Xin Zixing), Hong Kong and Macau (Traditional Chinese), Japanese kanji, Korean hanja and Vietnamese Nôm, the bottom component is written in the form of (similar to but the leftmost stroke is vertical and not curved 丿), which is the orthodox form found in the Kangxi dictionary.
  • In Taiwan (Traditional Chinese), the bottom component is written in the form of (meat radical, similar to where the leftmost stroke is curved 丿 but the two horizontal strokes enclosed within are written instead).
  • Due to Han unification, this character may or may not appear different, depending on the fonts available:
    • Taiwan: ; Mainland China: ; Japan, Korea, Hong Kong and Macau: .

Han characterEdit

(Kangxi radical 188, +0, 10 strokes in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 9 strokes in mainland China, cangjie input 月月月 (BBB), four-corner 77227, composition ⿱⿵⿰𠃍𠃍(GV) or ⿱⿵⿰𠃍⿰丨(HTJK))

  1. Kangxi radical #188, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №134

Derived charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 1447, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45098
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1973, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4406, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9AA8

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (skull) + (body).

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp. #

Usually related to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s/m/g-rus (bone), whence Tibetan རུས (rus), Sichuan Yi (vup ddu), S'gaw Karen တၢ်ဃံ (ta̱ xee ), but there is no trace of a medial *r in Chinese (Schuessler, 2007).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • gǔ - usual pronunciation;
  • gū - used in some colloquial words, such as 骨朵兒 (“unbloomed flower”) and 骨碌 (“to roll”);
  • gú - used in some colloquial words, such as 骨頭 (“bone”).
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ku²¹⁴/
    /ku³⁵/
    Harbin /ku²¹³/
    Tianjin /ku¹³/ ~折
    /ku²¹/ ~頭
    Jinan /ku²¹³/
    Qingdao /ku⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ku²⁴/
    Xi'an /ku²¹/
    Xining /kv̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ku¹³/
    Lanzhou /ku¹³/
    Ürümqi /ku²¹³/
    Wuhan /ku²¹³/
    Chengdu /ku³¹/
    Guiyang /ku²¹/
    Kunming /ku³¹/
    Nanjing /kuʔ⁵/
    Hefei /kuəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /kuəʔ²/
    Pingyao /kuʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /kuəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /kuəʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /kuəʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /kuoʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /ky²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /kuʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /ku⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /ku²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ku²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /kuɨʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /kut̚¹/
    Taoyuan /kut̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kwɐt̚⁵/
    Nanning /kɛɐt̚⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kwɐt̚⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kut̚³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kɔuʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ko²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kuk̚²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /kut̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (56)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuət̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuot̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuət̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwət̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuət̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuət̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuət̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gu
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwat1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwot ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁut/
    English bone

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4321
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kuːd/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (anatomy) bone
    2. skeleton; frame; framework
    3. moral character
    4. a surname
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    trad.
    simp. #
    alternative forms

    From English quarter.

    PronunciationEdit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Cantonese) quarter of an hour; 15 minutes (Classifier: c)
      / [Cantonese]  ―  saam1 dim2 jat1 go3 gwat1 [Jyutping]  ―  quarter past three
      / [Cantonese]  ―  ng5 dim2 saam1 go3 gwat1 [Jyutping]  ―  quarter to six (literally three quarters past five)
    2. (Cantonese) one fourth; a quarter

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. skeleton
    2. bone

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • New Nelson: 6784
    • Halpern: 2654
    • Halpern Learners: 1699
    • Heisig: 1288
    • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 4b6.14
    1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (hone): a bone.
    Kanji in this term
    ほね
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    /pone//ɸone//hone/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *pənay.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (ほね) (hone

    1. bone

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かわら
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    (rare)

    /kapara//kaɸara//kawara/

    Probably from Sanskrit कपाल (kapāla, cup, bowl, skull). Cognate with (kawara, tile, particularly for roofing or flooring).[2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (かわら) (kawaraかはら (kafara)?

    1. (archaic, rare) a bone, particularly a covering bone such as a skull or kneecap

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    こつ
    Grade: 6
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC kuət̚, “bone”).

    The knack sense comes from the idea of the bones as the innermost core or essence of something.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (こつ) (kotsu

    1. remains, ashes
    2. knack, trick
      ネイルコツ
      neiru no kotsu
      tricks and tips for doing one's nails
    Alternative formsEdit
    • (knack, trick): コツ (kotsu)

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kuət̚).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 고ᇙ〮 (Yale: kwólq)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] ᄲᅧ〮 (Yale: spyé) 골〮 (Yale: kwól)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (ppyeo gol))

    1. Hanja form? of (bone).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Cognate with Japanese (hone, bone).

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ふに, romaji funi)

    1. bone
    2. frame (of a sliding paper door, etc)
    3. stem, stalk

    Etymology 2Edit

    Ultimately from Middle Chinese (MC kuət̚, “bone”).

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くち, romaji kuchi, hiragana くし, romaji kushi)

    1. remains, ashes

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: cốt[1][2][3][4][5][6]
    : Nôm readings: cốt[1][2][3], cót[1][3], cút[1][3], cọt[3], gút[3]

    1. chữ Hán form of cốt (bone (compounds), extracted, condensed).

    ReferencesEdit