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U+9AA8, 骨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9AA8

[U+9AA7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9AA9]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
Mainland China
 
Taiwanese
stroke order
 
Japanese
stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • In traditional Chinese (Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau), Japanese kanji and Korean hanja, the inner component on the top of the character is positioned to the right () (), which is the orthodox form found in the historical Kangxi dictionary.
  • In mainland China (based on Xin Zixing standardized form 新字形) and Vietnamese Nôm, the inner component on the top of the character is positioned to the left () ().
  • In mainland China, Japanese kanji, Korean hanja and Vietnamese Nôm, the bottom component is written in the form of (similar to but the leftmost stroke is vertical and not curved 丿), which is the orthodox form found in the Kangxi dictionary.
  • In traditional Chinese used in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau (based on Big5 standard), the bottom component is written in the form of (meat radical, similar to where the leftmost stroke is curved 丿 but the two horizontal strokes enclosed within are written are written instead).
  • Due to Han unification, this character will appear to be different depending on the fonts available:
    • Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau: ; Mainland China: ; Japan and Korea: .

Han characterEdit

(radical 188, +0, 10 strokes in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 9 strokes in mainland China, cangjie input 月月月 (BBB), four-corner 77227, composition ⿳◱(GV) or ⿳◲(HT) or ⿳◲(JK))

  1. Kangxi radical #188, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1447, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45098
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1973, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4406, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9AA8

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰuːl, *kʰuːlʔ, *kʰuːd
*ɡruːd, *kuːd, *ɡuːd
*ɡruːd
*ɡruːd
*ɡruːd
*ɡruːd, *kuːd, *ɡuːd
*qruːd
*kuːd
*kuːd
*kuːd
*kuːd
*kuːd, *ɡuːd
*kuːd
*ɡuːd
*ɡuːd, *ɡrɯːɡ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (skull) +  (body).

EtymologyEdit

“bone”, etc.
Usually related to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s/m/g-rus (bone), whence Tibetan རུས (rus), Sichuan Yi (vup ddu), S'gaw Karen တၢ်ဃံ (ta̱chi), but there is no trace of a medial *r in Chinese (Schuessler, 2007).
“15 minutes”
From English quarter.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • gǔ - usual pronunciation;
  • gū - used in some colloquial words, such as 骨朵兒 (“unbloomed flower”) and 骨碌 (“to roll”);
  • gú - used in some colloquial words, such as 骨頭 (“bone”).
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ku²¹⁴/
    /ku³⁵/
    Harbin /ku²¹³/
    Tianjin /ku¹³/ ~折
    /ku²¹/ ~頭
    Jinan /ku²¹³/
    Qingdao /ku⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ku²⁴/
    Xi'an /ku²¹/
    Xining /kv̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ku¹³/
    Lanzhou /ku¹³/
    Ürümqi /ku²¹³/
    Wuhan /ku²¹³/
    Chengdu /ku³¹/
    Guiyang /ku²¹/
    Kunming /ku³¹/
    Nanjing /kuʔ⁵/
    Hefei /kuəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /kuəʔ²/
    Pingyao /kuʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /kuəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /kuəʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /kuəʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /kuoʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /ky²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /kuʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /ku⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /ku²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ku²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /kuɨʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /kut̚¹/
    Taoyuan /kut̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kwɐt̚⁵/
    Nanning /kɛɐt̚⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kwɐt̚⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kut/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kɔuʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ko²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kuk̚²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /kut̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (56)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuət̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuot̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuət̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwət̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuət̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuət̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuət̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gu
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwot ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˤut/
    English bone

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4321
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kuːd/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (anatomy) bone
    2. skeleton; frame; framework
    3. moral character
    4. (Cantonese) 15 minutes
    5. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. skeleton
    2. bone

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • New Nelson: 6784
    • Halpern: 2654
    • Halpern Learners: 1699
    • Heisig: 1288
    • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 4b6.14
    1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (hone): a bone.
    Kanji in this term
    ほね
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    /pone//ɸone//hone/

    From Old Japanese. Possibly cognate with Korean (ppyeo, “bone”).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ほね, rōmaji hone)

    1. bone
    2. a rib,

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かわら
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    /kapara//kaɸara//kawara/

    Probably from Sanskrit कपालः (kapāla, cup, bowl, skull). Cognate with (kawara, tile, particularly for roofing or flooring).[2]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かわら, rōmaji kawara, historical hiragana かはら)

    1. (archaic, rare) a bone, particularly a covering bone such as a skull or kneecap

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    こつ
    Grade: 6
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (kwot, bone).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana こつ, rōmaji kotsu)

    1. remains, ashes
    2. knack, trick
    Alternative formsEdit
    • (knack, trick): コツ (kotsu)

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (gol) (hangeul , revised gol, McCune–Reischauer kol, Yale kol)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana くち, romaji kuchi)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くち, romaji kuchi)

    1. remains, ashes

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (cốt, cọt, cút, gút)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit