See also: , , 𡈽, and ±
U+571F, 土
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-571F

[U+571E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5720]
U+2F1F, ⼟
KANGXI RADICAL EARTH

[U+2F1E]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F20]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 32, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input (G), four-corner 40100, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #32, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 223, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4867
  • Dae Jaweon: page 453, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 415, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+571F

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

𡈽

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
             

Pictogram (象形): a lump of clay on a potter’s wheel.

Etymology 1 edit

There is no obvious cognate and etymology, unless it may be related to Proto-Austroasiatic *tiʔ (Proto-Monic *tiiʔ (soil; ground consisting of earth), Semnam tɛʔ (soil; earth)). However, this would require the assumption of a shift from front vowel to Old Chinese *a (Schuessler, 2007).

Probably related to (OC *ɦljaːʔ, “god of soil; altar to god of soil”).

Pronunciation edit


Note: dou6 - “ground, dust”.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /tʰu²¹⁴/
Harbin /tʰu²¹³/
Tianjin /tʰu¹³/
Jinan /tʰu⁵⁵/
Qingdao /tʰu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /tʰu⁵³/
Xi'an /tʰu⁵³/
Xining /tʰv̩⁵³/
Yinchuan /tʰu⁵³/
Lanzhou /tʰu⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /tʰu⁵¹/
Wuhan /tʰəu⁴²/
Chengdu /tʰu⁵³/
Guiyang /tʰu⁴²/
Kunming /tʰu⁵³/
Nanjing /tʰu²¹²/
Hefei /tʰu²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /tʰu⁵³/
Pingyao /tʰu⁵³/
Hohhot /tʰu⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /tʰu³⁵/
Suzhou /tʰəu⁵¹/
Hangzhou /tʰu⁵³/
Wenzhou /tʰøy³⁵/
Hui Shexian /tʰu³⁵/
Tunxi /tʰəu³¹/
Xiang Changsha /tʰəu⁴¹/
Xiangtan /tʰəɯ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /tʰu²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /tʰu³¹/
Taoyuan /tʰu³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /tʰou³⁵/
Nanning /tʰu³⁵/
Hong Kong /tʰou³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tʰɔ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tʰu³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tʰu²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /tʰou⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔu³¹/ 訓途
/hɔu²¹³/ ~產

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (6)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter thuX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰuoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰuoX/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰoX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɔX/
Li
Rong
/tʰoX/
Wang
Li
/tʰuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰuoX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
tou2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ thuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*tʰˁaʔ/
English earth

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 12499
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ʰaːʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. earth; soil
      ―  duī  ―  mound; hillock
    這兒这儿  ―  Zhèr de gòu féi de.  ―  The soil here is quite fertile.
  2. (dialectal) dust
  3. land
      ―  guó  ―  territory
    不讓不让  ―  cùnbùràng  ―  to not give up a single inch of one's territory
  4. crude opium
      ―  yān  ―  crude opium
  5. hometown; native place
      ―    ―  native land; native place
  6. local; native; indigenous
      ―  zhù  ―  aboriginal
      ―  huà  ―  local dialect
  7. rustic; unsophisticated; uncouth; vulgar; tasteless; uncultured
    覺得東北話實在 [MSC, trad.]
    觉得东北话实在 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ juéde dōngběihuà shízài tài le. [Pinyin]
    I think that Northeastern Mandarin is too rustic.
  8. indigenous; traditional and used by the common people
      ―    ―  traditional method used by the common people; indigenous method
      ―  qiāng  ―  gun manufactured using indigenous methods
  9. (~族) the Tu ethnic group; Monguor people; White Mongol
  10. Short for 土耳其 (Tǔ'ěrqí, “Turkey”).
    戰爭战争  ―  É zhànzhēng  ―  Russo-Turkish War
  11. a surname
Synonyms edit
  • (earth):
  • (dust):
  • (land): 土地 (tǔdì)
  • (hometown):
Antonyms edit
  • (indigenous): (yáng)

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (7)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter duX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/duoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/duoX/
Shao
Rongfen
/doX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dɔX/
Li
Rong
/doX/
Wang
Li
/duX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱuoX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
dou6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 12503
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l'aːʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. Alternative form of (, root)
  2. An ancient river

Etymology 3 edit

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. Only used in 土苴 (chǎzhǎ).

Etymology 4 edit

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. Only used in 土門土门 (Túmén).

Etymology 5 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“unmarried male; bachelor; man; etc.”).
(This character, , is a variant form of ).

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
つち
Grade: 1
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

From Old Japanese.[1][2]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(つち) (tsuchi

  1. earth, soil, mud
  2. the ground
Derived terms edit
Idioms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kan’on

Short form of ateji spelling 土耳古 (Toruko).

Proper noun edit

() (To

  1. Short for トルコ (Toruko): Turkey

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kan’yōon

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

() (do

  1. Short for 土曜日 (doyōbi): Saturday

References edit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC thuX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 통〯 (Yale: thwǒ)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] ᄒᆞᆰ (Yale: hòlk) 토〮 (Yale: thwó)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (heuk to))

  1. Hanja form? of (earth; soil). [affix]
  2. Hanja form? of (Short for 토요일(土曜日) (toyoil, Saturday).).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: thổ ((tha)(lỗ)(thiết))[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: thổ[1][2][4], độ[2], thuở[2]

  1. chữ Hán form of thổ (earth; soil; land).

Compounds edit

References edit