See also: and
U+8CB7, 買
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8CB7

[U+8CB6]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8CB8]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 154, +5, 12 strokes, cangjie input 田中月山金 (WLBUC), four-corner 60806, composition )

Descendants edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1206, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36708
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1669, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3633, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+8CB7

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.
nonstandard simp. 𧹒
alternative forms 𧵽

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Spring and Autumn
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions
   

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (net) + (money cowrie).

Baxter and Sagart (2014) consider it to be a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声) : abbreviated phonetic (*rˤaj) + semantic (money cowrie).

Etymology edit

Possibly from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g/m/s-laj ~ *r/s-lej ~ *b-rej (to buy; to barter); compare Proto-Karen *breᴬ (to buy), Proto-Bodo-Garo *prai¹ (to buy), Tibetan རྗེ (rje, to exchange; to barter) (Schuessler, 2007; Sagart, 1999, 2011). Benedict (1967, 1972) considers this allofam to be a result of borrowing from Austro-Tai *(m)baḷi several times into Sino-Tibetan languages.

Alternatively, Haudricourt and Strecker (1991) consider and to be borrowed from Hmong-Mien, which may have a family of verbs related to possession: *mɛjX (to buy, corresponding to ), *mɛjH (to buy, corresponding to ), *ʔ-mɛj (to grasp), *n-mɛj (to have) (Ratliff, 2010). However, Sagart (1995) argues that the direction of borrowing is more likely to be from Chinese to Hmong-Mien because Hmong-Mien does not seem to have a suffix that would give rise to the tone in the word for “to buy”. In addition to these two ways of relating the Chinese word to Hmong-Mien, Ratliff (2010) proposes common inheritance as a third option and maintains that more evidence is needed to determine which of the three explanations are correct.

The surname only appears among Taiwanese aboriginals and Hui people in Mainland China. The surname is from the Siraya name Takalomay in Taiwan or possibly from the name 買買提买买提 (Mǎimǎití, Mehmet) for Hui people.

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • mā̤ - vernacular;
  • māi - literary.
Note:
  • bóe/bé - vernacular;
  • mái - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /mai²¹⁴/
Harbin /mai²¹³/
Tianjin /mai¹³/
Jinan /mɛ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /mɛ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /mai⁵³/
Xi'an /mai⁵³/
Xining /mɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /mɛ⁵³/
Lanzhou /mɛ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /mai⁵¹/
Wuhan /mai⁴²/
Chengdu /mai⁵³/
Guiyang /mai⁴²/
Kunming /mæ⁵³/
Nanjing /mae²¹²/
Hefei /me̞²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /mai⁵³/
Pingyao /mæ⁵³/
Hohhot /mɛ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ma²³/
Suzhou /mɑ³¹/
Hangzhou /me̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /ma³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ma³⁵/
Tunxi /ma²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /mai⁴¹/
Xiangtan /mai⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /mai²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /mai⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /mɑi²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mai²³/
Nanning /mai²⁴/
Hong Kong /mai¹³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /mai⁵³/
/bue⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /mɛ³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /mai²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /boi⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /mai²¹³/ ~办
/vɔi²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (31)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter meaX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mˠɛX/
Pan
Wuyun
/mᵚæX/
Shao
Rongfen
/mæiX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/maɨjX/
Li
Rong
/mɛX/
Wang
Li
/maiX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/maiX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
mǎi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
maai5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
mǎi
Middle
Chinese
‹ meaX ›
Old
Chinese
/*mˁrajʔ/
English buy

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8727
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mreːʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. to buy; to purchase
      ―  mǎi le liàng xīn chē.  ―  I bought a new car.
  2. to bribe
  3. to persuade
  4. a surname

Antonyms edit

  • (antonym(s) of to buy): (mài, “to sell”)

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

  • Proto-Hmong-Mien: *mɛjX (to buy)

Further reading edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to buy

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Antonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun (sal mae))

  1. Hanja form? of (buy).
  2. "Goguryeo" language: *me, “river, water

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: mãi, mạy, mảy, mấy, mới, mái, mải, với

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.