See also: and
U+8CB7, 買
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8CB7

[U+8CB6]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8CB8]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 154, +5, 12 strokes, cangjie input 田中月山金 (WLBUC), four-corner 60806, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1206, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36708
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1669, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3633, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+8CB7

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𧹒

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Spring and Autumn
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions
   

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (net) +  (money cowrie).

Baxter and Sagart (2014) consider it to be a phono-semantic compound (形聲): abbreviated phonetic  (*rˤaj) + semantic  (money cowrie).

EtymologyEdit

Possibly from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g/m/s-laj ~ *r/s-lej ~ *b-rej (to buy; to barter); compare Proto-Karen *breᴬ (to buy), Proto-Bodo-Garo *prai¹ (to buy), Tibetan རྗེ (rje, to exchange; to barter) (Schuessler, 2007; Sagart, 1999, 2011). Benedict (1967, 1972) considers this allofam to be a result of borrowing from Austro-Tai *(m)baḷi several times into Sino-Tibetan languages.

Alternatively, Haudricourt and Strecker (1991) consider and to be borrowed from Hmong-Mien, which may have a family of verbs related to possession: *mɛjX (to buy, corresponding to ), *mɛjH (to buy, corresponding to ), *ʔ-mɛj (to grasp), *n-mɛj (to have) (Ratliff, 2010). However, Sagart (1995) argues that the direction of borrowing is more likely to be from Chinese to Hmong-Mien because Hmong-Mien does not seem to have a suffix that would give rise to the tone in the word for “to buy”. In addition to these two ways of relating the Chinese word to Hmong-Mien, Ratliff (2010) proposes common inheritance as a third option and maintains that more evidence is needed to determine which of the three explanations are correct.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • mā̤ - vernacular;
  • māi - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • bóe/bé - vernacular;
    • mái - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mai²¹⁴/
    Harbin /mai²¹³/
    Tianjin /mai¹³/
    Jinan /mɛ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /mɛ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /mai⁵³/
    Xi'an /mai⁵³/
    Xining /mɛ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /mɛ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /mɛ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /mai⁵¹/
    Wuhan /mai⁴²/
    Chengdu /mai⁵³/
    Guiyang /mai⁴²/
    Kunming /mæ⁵³/
    Nanjing /mae²¹²/
    Hefei /me̞²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /mai⁵³/
    Pingyao /mæ⁵³/
    Hohhot /mɛ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /ma²³/
    Suzhou /mɑ³¹/
    Hangzhou /me̞⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ma³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /ma³⁵/
    Tunxi /ma²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /mai⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /mai⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /mai²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /mai⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /mɑi²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mai²³/
    Nanning /mai²⁴/
    Hong Kong /mai¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /mai⁵³/
    /bue⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /mɛ³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mai²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /boi⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /mai²¹³/ ~办
    /vɔi²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (31)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠɛX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚæX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /mæiX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /maɨjX/
    Li
    Rong
    /mɛX/
    Wang
    Li
    /maiX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /maiX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    mǎi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    mǎi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ meaX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mˁrajʔ/
    English buy

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8727
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mreːʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to buy; to purchase
      /   ―  mǎi le liàng xīn chē.  ―  I bought a new car.
    2. to bribe
    3. to persuade
    4. A surname​.

    AntonymsEdit

    • (to buy): (mài, “to sell”)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Hmong-Mien: *mɛjX (to buy)

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. to buy

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    AntonymsEdit

    Derived termsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (sal mae))

    1. Hanja form? of (buy).

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (mãi, mạy, mảy, mấy, mới, mái, mải, với)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.