See also: , , , and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
貝-order.gif

Han characterEdit

(radical 154 +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 月山金 (BUC), four-corner 60800)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1204, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36656
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1665, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3622, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8C9D

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
貝-oracle.svg 貝-bronze.svg 貝-bigseal.svg 貝-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – cowry.

EtymologyEdit

Cowries were used as money in ancient China (Shell money). Guo (1945) proposes that cowries used by the ancient Chinese dynasties in Central China must have come from the southeastern shores of China and areas further south, as the species of sea snail used as decoration and currency—Monetaria moneta (money cowry)—is not native to the eastern seashores of China. He further proposes that in addition to the cowry itself, the word for cowry, , is also an ancient loanword from languages of the south (which call it “bia”).

Compare Malay bia ‎(cowry), Thai เบี้ย ‎(bîia, cowry shell; money), Proto-Mon-Khmer *ɓa(a)j ‎(bean, small weight or coin) > Khasi sbâi, 'bâi ‎(money, cowry, shell), Khmer ពៃ ‎(pey, obsolete small coin).

Alternatively, Starostin, Matisoff (2003) and Schuessler (2007) relate to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bwap ‎(snail), via (OC *paːds) < *pāps. If so it would be cognate with Jingpho pawp, lapawp ‎(snail).

PronunciationEdit

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (1)
Final: (25)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: bèi
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/pɑiH/ /pɑiH/ /pɑiH/ /pajH/ /pɑiH/ /pɑiH/ /pɑiH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
415 1 /*paːds/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. shellfish; cowrie
  2. money; currency
  3. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana かい, romaji kai)

  1. a shellfish

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  2. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(pae)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: pae, McCune-Reischauer: p'ae, Yale: phay)
  • Name (hangeul): 조개 (revised: jogae)
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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(bối, buổi, bói, búi, với, mấy, mới, vuối, thói)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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