U+6211, 我
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6211

[U+6210]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6212]
Commons:Category
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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 
Stroke order
(Taiwan)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 62, +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹手戈 (HQI), four-corner 23550, composition𠂌)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 412, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11545
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1401, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+6211

Further readingEdit


ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

A pictogram (象形) of a rake-like tool or weapon (note the oracle bone script form); Guo Moruo considers it to be the original character for (OC *ɡral, “a kind of axe or chisel”). Jao & Zeng (1985, pp. 289–290) conjecture about its similarity to a kind of three-bladed polearm found at archaeological sites; cf. (“polearm with one blade”). It was already borrowed for sound to mean "I" (in the sense of "first-person subject") since the oracle bone script.

Folk etymology considers it to be an ideograph of a hand () holding a weapon () to protect oneself.

Some have suggested a contrast with , interpreting the latter as a weapon with tip pointing outward. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ŋa-j ~ ka. Cognate with (OC *ŋaː), Hakka 𠊎 (ngài). The expected Mandarin pronunciation is ě (now only found in a few Northern dialects); is "a col[loquial] archaism" (Schuessler, 2007).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ngoi1 - vernacular (“I; my”);
  • ngo4 - literary (“I”);
  • ngoi4 - “we; our”.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • nguāi - vernacular;
    • ngō̤ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • góa/óa - vernacular;
    • ngó͘ - literary.
    Note:
    • ua2 - vernacular;
    • ngo2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɑX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋɑX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋɑX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋɑX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋɑX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋɑX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ě
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ngo5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngaX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋˁajʔ/
    English we, I

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13041
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋaːlʔ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. I; me; my
      認識高興 / 认识高兴  ―  Rènshí nǐ zhēn gāoxìng.  ―  I am pleased to meet you.
      哥哥每天上班遲到 [MSC, trad.]
      哥哥每天上班迟到 [MSC, simp.]
      gēge měitiān shàngbān dōu chídào. [Pinyin]
      My brother is late for work every day.
      今朝公司事體 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      今朝公司事体 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [t͡ɕɪɲ⁵⁵ t͡sɔ²¹ kʊŋ⁵⁵ sz̩²¹ ɦiɜ³³  z̻z̩²² tʰi⁴⁴ ŋv̩ʷ²³ ɕi⁵³ t͡sɜ³³ ləʔ⁴⁴] [IPA]
      Today I have things to do in the company, (so) I'm leaving early (lit. ahead).
    2. (literary, formal or dialectal) we; us; our
      /   ―  guó  ―  our country
        ―  shì  ―  our city
    3. to stubbornly hold to one's own opinion
    4. to kill
    5. tilted
    6. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    Standard Mandarin Chinese personal pronouns
    Person Singular Plural
    1st () 我們我们 (wǒmen)
    inclusive 咱們咱们 (zánmen)
    2nd male/indefinite () 你們你们 (nǐmen)
    female () 妳們你们 (nǐmen)
    deity () 祢們祢们 (nǐmen)
    polite (nín) 你們你们 (nǐmen)
    您們您们 (nínmen)
    3rd male/indefinite () 他們他们 (tāmen)
    female () 她們她们 (tāmen)
    deity () 祂們祂们 (tāmen)
    animal () 牠們它们 (tāmen)
    inanimate () 它們它们 (tāmen)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    われ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings

    From Old Japanese,[1] as the long form of (wa) below.

    Compound of (wa, see below) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix).

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (われ) (ware

    1. first person singular pronoun: I, me, oneself
    2. second person singular pronoun: you
    Usage notesEdit

    In modern Japanese, most often encountered in the plural forms 我等 (warera) and 我我 (wareware, we, us).

    Derived termsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings

    From Old Japanese (wa).[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    () (wa

    1. (obsolete or dialect) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
      • 棟方志功
        わだばゴッホになる
        wa daba gohho ni naru
        (Aomori) I'll be a Gogh
    Usage notesEdit

    In modern Japanese, most often encountered in fossilized phrases in combination with the Old Japanese possessive particle (ga), such as 我が儘 (wagamama, selfish; selfishness, literally just as I like) or 我が国 (wagakuni, my country, my homelandJapan).

    Derived termsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    わ(が)
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    [pronoun] (archaic, now literary) my
    [pronoun] (archaic, now literary) our
    Alternative spellings
    吾が,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    H
    [pronoun] (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あれ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    あれ
    [pronoun] (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɑX).

    The Buddhist senses are a translation of Sanskrit आत्मन् (ātman, self).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (ga

    1. the ego, self
    2. self-righteousness
    3. (Buddhism) obstinacy
      Antonym: 無我 (muga)
    4. (Hinduism) atman
      Synonym: アートマン (ātoman)
    Derived termsEdit

    AffixEdit

    () (ga

    1. self, oneself, myself
    2. egotism, selfishness
    3. (Buddhism) atman

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɑX).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅡᆼ〯 (Yale: ngǎ)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] (Yale: ) 아〯 (Yale: ǎ)

    PronunciationEdit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [a̠(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (na a))

    1. (literary) Hanja form? of (I; me).
    2. (literary) Hanja form? of (we; us; our).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit


    Old JapaneseEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Proto-Japonic *wa.

    PronounEdit

    (wa) (kana )

    1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:我.

    Derived termsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (wa)

    Etymology 2Edit

    From (wa, see above) +‎ (-re, thing, nominalizing suffix).

    PronounEdit

    (ware) (kana われ)

    1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:我.

    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (ware)

    Etymology 3Edit

    Likely a compound of (wa, see above) +‎ (-ro, suffix indicating affection).

    PronounEdit

    (waro2) (kana わろ)

    1. (regional, Southern Eastern Old Japanese) first person singular pronoun: I, me
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:我.

    Etymology 4Edit

    Cognate with (ware) above.[1]

    PronounEdit

    (wanu) (kana わぬ)

    1. (regional, Northern Eastern Old Japanese) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:我.

    Etymology 5Edit

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    PronounEdit

    (a) (kana )

    1. first-person singular pronoun: I, me
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:我.

    Derived termsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (a)

    Etymology 6Edit

    From (a, see above) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix).

    PronounEdit

    (are) (kana あれ)

    1. first-person singular pronoun: I, me
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:我.

    DescendantsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: ngã[1][2][3][4], ngả ((ngữ)(khả)(thiết))[5]
    : Nôm readings: ngả[1][2][3][6][5][4][7], ngã[1][2][3][5][4][7]

    1. Hán tự form of ngã, ngả ((archaic) I; me).
    2. Nôm form of ngả (way; direction).
    3. Nôm form of ngã (to fall; to slip).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit