Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
Taiwanese
stroke order

Han characterEdit

(radical 62 +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹手戈 (HQI), four-corner 23550, composition𠂌)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit


ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

A pictogram (象形) of a rake-like tool or weapon, borrowed for sound to mean "I" (note oracle bone script form); considered by some to be an ideograph of a hand (shǒu) holding a weapon () to protect oneself.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ŋa. Cognate with (), (ǎn), 𠊎.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (94)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɑX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋɑX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɑX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaX/
Li
Rong
/ŋɑX/
Wang
Li
/ŋɑX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋɑX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ě
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngaX ›
Old
Chinese
/*ŋˤajʔ/
English we, I

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13041
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋaːlʔ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. I, me
    認識高興 / 认识高兴  ―  Rènshí nǐ zhēn gāoxìng.  ―  I am pleased to meet you.
  2. (dialectal) we, us

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of (“I”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Classical
Mandarin Beijing
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian 𠊎
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𠊎
Liudui (S. Sixian) 𠊎
Hsinchu (Hailu) 𠊎
Dongshi (Dabu) 𠊎
Taiwanese Raoping 𠊎
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠊎
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Taipei
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai 阿拉
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng
Dialectal synonyms of 我們 (“we”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Classical 吾儕我等我曹我輩
Mandarin Beijing 我們
Jinan 我們俺們俺這伙
Xi'an 我的我們
Wuhan 我們
Chengdu 我們
Yangzhou 我們
Hefei 我們
Cantonese Guangzhou 我哋
Hong Kong 我哋
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang 我個裡我們
Hakka Meixian 𠊎等人𠊎等
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𠊎兜𠊎等𠊎兜人𠊎兜儕𠊎這兜
Liudui (S. Sixian) 𠊎等𠊎等人
Hsinchu (Hailu) 𠊎兜𠊎等𠊎兜人𠊎兜儕
Dongshi (Dabu) 吾等吾這兜吾這兜人
Taiwanese Raoping 𠊎兜𠊎等𠊎兜人𠊎兜儕
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠊎人
Jin Taiyuan 我們俺們
Min Bei Jian'ou 我人我伙人
Min Dong Fuzhou 我各儂
Min Nan Xiamen
Taipei
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai 阿拉我伲 dated dated
Suzhou
Wenzhou 我倈
Xiang Changsha 我們
Shuangfeng 我哩卬哩

CompoundsEdit

See alsoEdit

Standard Chinese personal pronouns
Person Singular Plural
1st 我們我们 (wǒmen)
inclusive 咱們咱们 (zánmen)
2nd male/indefinite () 你們你们 (nǐmen)
female () 妳們你们 (nǐmen)
deity () 祢們祢们 (nǐmen)
polite (nín) 你們你们 (nǐmen)
您們您们 (nínmen)
3rd male/indefinite () 他們他们 (tāmen)
female () 她們她们 (tāmen)
deity () 祂們祂们 (tāmen)
animal () 牠們它们 (tāmen)
inanimate () 它們它们 (tāmen)

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. I, me

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 6
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] The short form of ‎(ware).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji wa)

  1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      「[...]が丈たち竝ぶまで養ひたてまつりたる我子を、なに人が迎へきこえん。まさに許さんや」と言ひて、[...]
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Kiritsubo)
      かしこき御蔭をば、たのみきこえながら、貶めきずを求め給ふ人はおほく、がみはかよわく、物はかなきありさまにて、中々なる物思ひをぞし給ふ。
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Utsusemi)
      女どち、のどやかなる夕闇の、道たどたどしげなるまぎれに、が車にてゐてたてまつる。
Usage notesEdit

In modern Japanese, most often encountered in fossilized phrases in combination with the Old Japanese possessive particle ‎(ga), such as 我が儘 ‎(wagamama, selfish; selfishness, literally just as I like) or 我が国 ‎(wagakuni, my country, my homeland; (by extension) Japan).

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
われ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Appears to be ‎(wa, see above) +‎ ‎(re), a nominalizing suffix also seen in terms such as これ ‎(kore, this) and ‎(dare, who).

The long form of ‎(wa).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronounEdit

‎(hiragana われ, romaji ware)

  1. first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3384)
      可都思加能 麻末能手兒奈乎 麻許登可聞 和礼尓余須等布 麻末乃弖胡奈乎
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      この人々、あるときは竹取を呼び出て「娘をにたべ」と、ふし拝み、手をすりのたまへど[...]
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      「[...]わが丈たち竝ぶまで養ひたてまつりたる我子を、なに人が迎へきこえん。まさに許さんや」と言ひて、「われこそ死なめ」とて[...]
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Utsusemi)
      紀の守のいもうとも、こなたにあるか。われに、垣間見せさせよ
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho
      Vare. ワレ (我) 私. また, おまえ. 本来の正しい言い方ではないが、下賎な者と話したり, 人を軽しめたりする時に用いる.
  2. second person personal pronoun; you
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 679)
      Vare. ワレ (我) 私. また, おまえ. 本来の正しい言い方ではないが、下賎な者と話したり, 人を軽しめたりする時に用いる.
Usage notesEdit

In modern Japanese, most often encountered in the plural forms 我等 ‎(warera) and 我我 ‎(wareware, we, us).

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
わぬ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

Old Japanese. Ancient eastern dialect. Cognate with ‎(ware).[1]

Obsolete.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronounEdit

‎(hiragana わぬ, romaji wanu)

  1. (obsolete) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3476)
      宇倍兒奈波 和奴尓故布奈毛 多刀都久能 努賀奈敝由家婆 故布思可流奈母 或本歌末句曰 奴我奈敝由家杼 和奴賀由乃敝波
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4358)
      於保伎美乃 美許等加志古美 伊弖久礼婆 和努等里都伎弖 伊比之古奈波毛

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
わろ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

/waro2//waro/

Old Japanese. Ancient eastern dialect. Likely a compound of ‎(wa, see above) +‎ ‎(ro, Old Japanese suffix indicating affection).

Obsolete.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronounEdit

‎(hiragana わろ, romaji waro)

  1. (obsolete) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4343)
      和呂多比波 多比等於米保等 已比尓志弖 古米知夜須良牟 和加美可奈志母

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 6
kun'yomi

Old Japanese. The short form of ‎(are).

Obsolete. Fell into disuse in roughly the Heian period,[1][2] when it was replaced by wa (see above).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji a)

  1. (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3456)
      宇都世美能 夜蘇許登乃敝波 思気久等母 安良蘇比可祢弖 乎許登奈須那
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3457)
      宇知日佐須 美夜能和我世波 夜麻登女乃 比射麻久其登尓 乎和須良須奈
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3458)
      奈勢能古夜 等里乃乎加恥志 奈可太乎礼 乎祢思奈久与 伊久豆君麻弖尓
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3471)
      思麻良久波 祢都追母安良牟乎 伊米能未尓 母登奈見要都追 乎祢思奈久流
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Yūgao)
      が君、生き出で給へ。いと、いみじき目な見せ給ひそ

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
あれ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

The long form of ‎(a). Compound of ‎(a, see above) +‎ ‎(re), a nominalizing suffix also seen in terms such as これ ‎(kore, this) and ‎(dare, who).

Obsolete. Fell into disuse in roughly the Heian period,[2] when it was replaced by ware (see above).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronounEdit

‎(hiragana あれ, romaji are)

  1. (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 808)
      多都乃麻乎 阿礼波毛等米牟 阿遠尓与志 奈良乃美夜古迩 許牟比等乃多仁
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3361)
      安思我良能 乎弖毛許乃母尓 佐須和奈乃 可奈流麻之豆美 許呂安礼比毛等久
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem 3585)
      和伎母故我 之多尓毛伎余等 於久理多流 許呂母能比毛乎 安礼等可米也母
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 17, poem 3932)
      須麻比等乃 海辺都祢佐良受 夜久之保能 可良吉恋乎母 安礼波須流香物
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 18, poem 4058)
      多知婆奈能 登乎能多知婆奈 夜都代尓母 安礼波和須礼自 許乃多知婆奈乎
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4298)
      霜上尓 安良礼多婆之里 伊夜麻之尓 安礼波麻為許牟 年緒奈我久 古今未詳
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Yume no Ukihashi)
      [...]と、聞こえ動かして、几帳のもとに、おし寄せたてまつりたれば、あれにもあらず、居給へるけはい[...]

Etymology 7Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 6
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(ngaX).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji ga)

  1. ego
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(a) (hangeul , revised a, McCune-Reischauer a, Yale a)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

PronounEdit

  1. Hán tự form of ngã, ngả, “I (old)”

ReferencesEdit

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