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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 
Stroke order
(Taiwan)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 62, +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹手戈 (HQI), four-corner 23550, composition𠂌)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

Further readingEdit


ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl, *ŋralʔ
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl, *ŋaːlʔ
*ŋaːlʔ
*ŋaːlʔ
*ŋaːls
*ŋrals
*ŋral
*ŋral, *ŋralʔ
*ŋral, *ŋralʔ
*ŋralʔ
*ŋralʔ
*ŋralʔ
*ŋralʔ, *hŋral
*ŋrals
*hŋral
*hŋral
*hŋral

A pictogram (象形) of a rake-like tool or weapon (note the oracle bone script form); Guo Moruo considers it to be the original character for (OC *ɡral, “a kind of axe or chisel”). It was already borrowed for sound to mean "I" since the oracle bone script.

Folk etymology considers it to be an ideograph of a hand () holding a weapon () to protect oneself.

Some have suggested a contrast with , interpreting the latter as a weapon with tip pointing outward. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ŋa-j ~ ka. Cognate with (OC *ŋaː), Hakka 𠊎 (ngài).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ngoi1 - “I; my” (vernacular);
  • ngo4 - “I” (literary);
  • ngoi4 - “we; our”.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • nguāi - vernacular;
    • ngō̤ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • góa/óa - vernacular;
    • ngó͘ - literary.
    Note:
    • ua2 - vernacular;
    • ngo2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɑX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋɑX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋɑX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋɑX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋɑX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋɑX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ě
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngaX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋˁajʔ/
    English we, I

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13041
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋaːlʔ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. I; me; my
      認識高興 / 认识高兴  ―  Rènshí nǐ zhēn gāoxìng.  ―  I am pleased to meet you.
      哥哥每天上班遲到 [MSC, trad.]
      哥哥每天上班迟到 [MSC, simp.]
      gēge měitiān shàngbān dōu chídào. [Pinyin]
      My brother is late for work everyday.
      今朝公司事體 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      今朝公司事体 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [t͡ɕɪɲ⁵⁵ t͡sɔ²¹ kʊŋ⁵⁵ sz̩²¹ ɦiɜ³³  z̻z̩²² tʰi⁴⁴ ŋv̩ʷ²³ ɕi⁵³ t͡sɜ³³ ləʔ⁴⁴] [IPA]
      Today I have things to do in the company, (so) I'm leaving early (lit. ahead).
      [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      [Classical Chinese, simp.]
      From: Zhuangzi, circa 3rd – 2nd centuries BCE
      Wèi wáng yí dà hù zhī zhǒng, shù zhī chéng ér shí wǔ dàn. [Pinyin]
      The King of Wei gifted me with some seeds of a large calabash; I planted them and the fruit that grew could hold five dans of fluid.
    2. (literary, formal or dialectal) we; us; our
      /   ―  guó  ―  our country
        ―  shì  ―  our city
    3. to stubbornly hold to one's own opinion
    4. to kill
    5. tilted
    6. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“I”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , , , , , ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan ,
    Xi'an
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan)
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
    Macau
    Panyu
    Huadu (Huashan)
    Conghua
    Zengcheng
    Foshan
    Nanhai (Shatou)
    Shunde
    Sanshui
    Gaoming (Mingcheng)
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Zhuhai (Qianshan)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Doumen
    Jiangmen (Baisha) 𠊎
    Xinhui
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Enping (Niujiang)
    Heshan (Yayao)
    Dongguan
    Bao'an (Shajing)
    Yangjiang
    Nanning
    Danzhou
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian 𠊎
    Huizhou (Huicheng Bendihua)
    Dongguan (Qingxi) 𠊎
    Shenzhen (Shatoujiao) 𠊎
    Zhongshan (Nanlang Heshui) 𠊎
    Heyuan (Bendihua) 𠊎
    Liannan 𠊎
    Conghua (Lütian) 𠊎
    Jiexi 𠊎
    Changting 𠊎
    Wuping 𠊎
    Ninghua 𠊎
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𠊎
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 𠊎
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 𠊎
    Dongshi (Dabu) 𠊎
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 𠊎
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠊎
    Hong Kong 𠊎
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou ,
    Min Nan Xiamen ,
    Quanzhou ,
    Zhangzhou ,
    Taipei ,
    Kaohsiung ,
    Penang
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng
    Wenchang , humble, used by someone in the younger generation
    Wu Shanghai , , 阿拉
    Suzhou ,
    Wenzhou
    Ningbo , 我儂, 像我
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng ,
    Dialectal synonyms of 我們 (“we”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 吾儕, 我等, 我曹, 我輩
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 我們
    Mandarin Beijing 我們, 姆們
    Taiwan 我們
    Tianjin 我們
    Harbin 我們
    Shenyang 我們
    Hailar 我們
    Ulanhot 俺們
    Tongliao 俺們
    Chifeng 我們
    Bayanhot 我們
    Jinan 我們, 俺們, , 俺這夥
    Muping
    Luoyang 我們, 俺們,
    Wanrong 我的,
    Xi'an 俺的, , 我的, , 我們
    Qingdao
    Zhengzhou
    Xining 我們
    Xuzhou , 我們
    Yinchuan 卬們
    Lanzhou 我們
    Ürümqi 我們
    Wuhan 我們
    Huanggang 我家
    Chengdu 我們
    Guiyang 我們
    Guilin 我們
    Liuzhou 我們
    Kunming 我們
    Yangzhou 我們, , 我輩兒
    Nanjing 我們
    Hefei 我們
    Nantong 我恁, 我倈
    Malaysia 我們
    Singapore 我們
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 我們
    Masanchin (Shaanxi Dungan) 我們
    Cantonese Guangzhou 我哋
    Hong Kong 我哋
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 我哋
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou) 我哋
    Hong Kong (Ting Kok) 我哋
    Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau) 我俚
    Macau 我哋
    Panyu 我哋
    Huadu (Huashan) 我哋
    Conghua 我啲
    Zengcheng 我班人
    Foshan 我哋
    Nanhai (Shatou) 我哋
    Shunde 我哋
    Sanshui 我哋
    Gaoming (Mingcheng) 我哋
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 我哋
    Zhuhai (Qianshan) 我哋
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 我哋
    Doumen
    Jiangmen (Baisha)
    Xinhui
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Enping (Niujiang) 我喊齊
    Heshan (Yayao)
    Dongguan 我哋
    Bao'an (Shajing) 我哋
    Dapeng 我哋
    Shaoguan 我哋
    Yunfu 我哋
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi 我哋
    Lianjiang 我哋
    Nanning 我哋
    Wuzhou 我哋
    Yulin 我人
    Hepu
    Kuala Lumpur 我哋
    Ho Chi Minh City 我哋
    Gan Nanchang 我個俚, 我等, 我們
    Lichuan 我多
    Pingxiang 我俚, 巷俚
    Hakka Meixian 𠊎等人, 𠊎兜人, 𠊎儕
    Xingning 𠊎兜人
    Huizhou (Huicheng Bendihua) , 我咧, 我大家, 我茶家
    Huizhou (Shuikou Bendihua) , 我咧
    Huizhou (Hengli Bendihua) 我俚
    Huidong (Pingshan Bendihua) , 我咧
    Huidong (Daling) 𠊎兜人
    Dongguan (Qingxi) 吾兜
    Longmen (Pingling Bendihua) 我俚
    Longmen (Luxi Bendihua) 我咧
    Boluo (Bendihua) , 我齊家
    Shenzhen (Shatoujiao) 𠊎兜
    Zengcheng (Zhengguo) 吾兜, 𠊎兜
    Zhongshan (Wuguishan) 吾哋
    Zhongshan (Nanlang Heshui) 吾哋
    Wuhua (Shuizhai) 𠊎兜
    Wuhua (Huacheng) 𠊎兜
    Wuhua (Changbu) 𠊎兜
    Wuhua (Mianyang) 𠊎兜
    Heyuan (Bendihua) 我咧
    Zijin (Guzhu Bendihua) 我俚
    Longchuan (Tuocheng Bendihua) 我咧
    Longchuan (Sidu Bendihua) , 我咧
    Heping (Linzhai Bendihua) 我哋
    Lianping (Zhongxin Bendihua) 我咧
    Lianping (Longjie Bendihua) 我哋
    Qujiang 𠊎俚
    Xinfeng (Matou Bendihua) 我根
    Xinfeng (Daxi Bendihua) 我哋
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 阿俚
    Liannan 𠊎俚
    Conghua (Lütian) 𠊎兜
    Jiexi 𠊎兜儕
    Luchuan 𠊎俚
    Luchuan (Daqiao) 我們
    Changting 𠊎儕們, 𠊎儕
    Pingyu 𠊎等人, 𠊎兜
    Wuping 𠊎等人
    Liancheng 𠊎大全
    Ninghua 𠊎人, 𠊎多人
    Yudu 𠊎底
    Ruijin 𠊎班人
    Shicheng 𠊎郎人
    Shangyou 𠊎子人
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𠊎兜, 𠊎等, 𠊎兜人, 𠊎兜儕, 𠊎這兜
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 𠊎等, 𠊎等人
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 𠊎兜, 𠊎等, 𠊎兜人, 𠊎兜儕
    Dongshi (Dabu) 吾等, 吾這兜, 吾這兜人
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 𠊎兜, 𠊎等, 𠊎兜人, 𠊎兜儕
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠊎人
    Hong Kong 𠊎哋
    Sabah (Longchuan) 𠊎兜
    Senai 吾兜
    Singkawang 𠊎兜儕
    Huizhou Jixi 我人
    Shexian 我人
    Tunxi 我人
    Xiuning 我人
    Yixian 我儂
    Qimen 我大家
    Wuyuan 俺家, 刷俺
    Dexing 我拉
    Jingde 阿啊
    Xianyu (formerly Zhanda) 我些人
    Jin Taiyuan 我們, 俺們
    Pingyao 我家, 我家們家, 我們
    Xinzhou 俺們,
    Baochang 我們
    Jining 我們
    Hohhot 我們
    Baotou 我們
    Dongsheng 我們
    Linhe 我們
    Haibowan 我們
    Min Bei Jian'ou 我人, 我夥人
    Dikou 我人
    Songxi 俺叢人
    Zhenghe 我人
    Zhenqian 我人
    Jianyang 我夥人
    Wuyishan 我夥人
    Shibei 我人, 我多人
    Min Dong Fuzhou 我各儂, 儂家各儂, 儂家
    Changle 儂家
    Fuqing 儂家, 儂家各儂, 我各儂
    Pingtan 儂家
    Yongtai 儂家各儂
    Gutian 我各儂
    Fu'an 我儕
    Ningde 我儕儂, 我儕
    Shouning 我儂
    Zhouning 我儕
    Fuding 我儂
    Matsu 儂家
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Tong'an
    Quanzhou
    Jinjiang
    Nan'an
    Shishi
    Hui'an
    Anxi
    Yongchun
    Dehua
    Zhangzhou
    Longhai
    Changtai
    Hua'an
    Nanjing
    Pinghe
    Zhangpu
    Yunxiao
    Zhao'an
    Dongshan
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Hsinchu
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang 我儂
    Singapore 我儂,
    Philippines (Manila)
    Longyan 我儂
    Zhangping 我儂
    Zhangping (Yongfu) 我儂
    Datian 我夥
    Pingnan 阮儂
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng , 阮儂
    Wenchang 我儂
    Haikou 我儂
    Leizhou 我儂
    Puxian Min Putian 我輩
    Xianyou , 我輩
    Pinghua Nanning 我哋
    Guilin 我哋
    Shehua Fu'an 𠊎人
    Fuding 𠊎人
    Luoyuan 𠊎人
    Sanming 𠊎仔
    Shunchang 𠊎個人
    Wu Shanghai 阿拉, 我伲 dated, dated
    Suzhou
    Wuxi 我俚
    Hangzhou 我們
    Wenzhou 我倈
    Chongming 我俚
    Danyang 我己
    Jinhua 我郎,
    Tangxi 我道
    Ningbo 阿拉, 象拉
    Xiang Changsha 我們
    Shuangfeng 我俚, 卬俚
    Xiangtan 我人
    Loudi 我俺
    Quanzhou

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Others:

    • Betawi: gua (via Min Nan)
      • Indonesian: gua
    • Malay: gua (via Min Nan)

    CompoundsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    Standard Chinese personal pronouns
    Person Singular Plural
    1st () 我們我们 (wǒmen)
    inclusive 咱們咱们 (zánmen)
    2nd male/indefinite () 你們你们 (nǐmen)
    female () 妳們你们 (nǐmen)
    deity () 祢們祢们 (nǐmen)
    polite (nín) 你們你们 (nǐmen)
    您們您们 (nínmen)
    3rd male/indefinite () 他們他们 (tāmen)
    female () 她們她们 (tāmen)
    deity () 祂們祂们 (tāmen)
    animal () 牠們它们 (tāmen)
    inanimate () 它們它们 (tāmen)

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    われ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings

    From Old Japanese, [1]as the long form of (wa) below.

    Compound of (wa, see below) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix).

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana われ, rōmaji ware)

    1. first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
      • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari[4]
        「...わが (たけ)たち (なら)ぶまで (やしな)ひたてまつりたる (わが) ()を、なに (ひと) (むか)へきこえん。まさに (ゆる)さんや」と ()ひて、「われこそ ()なめ」とて...
        “...waga taketachi narabu made yashinai-tatematsuritaru wagako o, nani hito ga mukae-kikoen. Masa ni yurusan ya” to iite, “ware koso shiname” tote...
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      • c. 10011014, Murasaki Shikibu, Genji Monogatari (Utsusemi)[5]
         () (かみ)のいもうとも、こなたにあるか。われに、 (かき) () ()せさせよ...
        Ki no kami no imōto mo, konata ni aru ka. ware ni, kakima misesase yo
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho [6]
        Vare. ワレ (我) 私. また, おまえ. 本来の正しい言い方ではないが、下賎な者と話したり, 人を軽しめたりする時に用いる.
    2. second person personal pronoun: you
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 679)[6]
        Vare. ワレ (我) 私. また, おまえ. 本来の正しい言い方ではないが、下賎な者と話したり, 人を軽しめたりする時に用いる.
    Usage notesEdit

    In modern Japanese, most often encountered in the plural forms 我等 (warera) and 我我 (wareware, we, us).

    Derived termsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings

    From Old Japanese.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji wa)

    1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me
      • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari[4]
        「... (たけ)たち (なら)ぶまで (やしな)ひたてまつりたる (わが) ()を、なに (ひと) (むか)へきこえん。まさに (ゆる)さんや」と ()ひて...
        “...waga taketachi narabu made yashinai-tatematsuritaru wagako o, nani hito ga mukae-kikoen. Masa ni yurusan ya” to iite...
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      • c. 10011014, Murasaki Shikibu, Genji Monogatari (Kiritsubo)[5]
        かしこき御蔭 (おかげ)をば、たのみきこえながら、 (おとし)めきずを (もと) (たま) (ひと)はおほく、がみはかよわく、 (もの)はかなきありさまにて、中々 (なかなか)なる物思 (ものおも)ひをぞし (たま)ふ。
        kashikoki o-kage o ba, tanomi-kikoenagara, otoshimekizu o motometamau hito wa ōku, waga mi wa kayowaku, mono wa kanaki ari sama nite, nakanaka naru monoomoi o zo shi tamau.
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      • c. 10011014, Murasaki Shikibu, Genji Monogatari (Utsusemi)[5]
         (をんな)どち、のどやかなる夕闇 (ゆふやみ)の、 (みち)たどたどしげなるまぎれに、 (くるま)にてゐてたてまつる。
        onna-dochi, nodo ya kanaru yūyami no, michi tadotadoshi-genaru magire ni, waga kuruma nite ite tatematsuru.
        (please add an English translation of this example)
    Usage notesEdit

    In modern Japanese, most often encountered in fossilized phrases in combination with the Old Japanese possessive particle (ga), such as 我が儘 (wagamama, selfish; selfishness, literally just as I like) or 我が国 (wagakuni, my country, my homelandJapan).

    Derived termsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    わ(が)
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry at 我が.
    わが【我が・吾が・我】
    [pronoun](archaic, now literary) my
    [pronoun](archaic, now literary) our
    (This term, , is an alternative kanji spelling of 我が.)

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry at .
    あ【吾・我】
    [pronoun](obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    (This term, , is a kanji spelling of .)

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あれ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry at あれ.
    あれ【吾・我】
    [pronoun](obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    (This term, , is a kanji spelling of あれ.)

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɑX).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ga)

    1. the ego, self
    2. self-righteousness
    3. (Buddhism) obstinacy
      Antonym: 無我 (muga)
    4. (Hinduism) atman
      Synonym: アートマン (ātoman)

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ga)

    1. self, oneself, myself
    2. egotism, selfishness
    3. (Buddhism) atman

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 Horiuchi, Hideaki; Akiyama Ken (1997) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 17: Taketori Monogatari, Ise Monogatari (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
    5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Yamagishi, Tokuhei (1958) Koten Bungaku Taikei 14: Genji Monogatari 1 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
    6. 6.0 6.1 Doi, Tadao (1603–1604) Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1980, →ISBN.

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɑX). Attested in 훈몽자회/訓蒙字會 as Middle Korean 아〯 (a).

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (na a))

    1. (literary) Hanja form? of (I; me).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Old JapaneseEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    You can help Wiktionary by providing a proper etymology.

    PronounEdit

    (wa) (kana )

    1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    Derived termsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (wa)

    Etymology 2Edit

    From (wa, see above) +‎ (-re, thing, nominalizing suffix).

    PronounEdit

    (ware) (kana われ)

    1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 49)
        須須許理賀迦美斯美岐邇和禮恵比邇祁理許登那具志恵具志爾和禮恵比邇祁理
        susuko2ri ga kami1si mi1-ki1 ni ware wepi1nike1ri ko2to2nagusi wegusi ni ware wepi1nike1ri
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3384),[1] text here
        可都思加能麻末能手兒奈乎麻許登可聞和礼尓余須等布麻末乃弖胡奈乎
        Kadusika no2 mama no2 tego1na wo mako2to2 ka mo ware ni yo2su to2 pu mama no2 tego1ma wo
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (ware)

    Etymology 3Edit

    Likely a compound of (wa, see above) +‎ (-ro, suffix indicating affection).

    PronounEdit

    (waro2) (kana わろ)

    1. (regional, Southern Eastern Old Japanese) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4343)[2], text here
        和呂多比波多比等於米保等已比爾志弖古米知夜須良牟和加美可奈志母
        waro2 tabi1 pa tabi1 to2 ome2podo2 ipi1 nisite ko1 me2ti-yasuramu waga mi1 kanasi mo
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Etymology 4Edit

    Cognate with (ware) above.[3]

    PronounEdit

    (wanu) (kana わぬ)

    1. (regional, Northern Eastern Old Japanese) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3476, first variant)[1], text here
        宇倍兒奈波和奴爾故布奈毛多刀都久能努賀奈敝由家婆故布思可流奈母
        ube2 ko1na pa wanu ni ko1punamo tato1 tuku no2 no1ganape1yuke1ba ko1pusikarunamo
        Oh, yes, how (my) dear one loves me! While the rising moon (or the new month) goes flowing by, (s)he must be missing me so much.
        [Note: The second variant has the 下の句 (shimo no ku) saying 奴我奈敞由家杼和奴由賀乃敞波 (nuganape1yuke1do2 wanu yukano2pe1ba, though it goes flowing by, while I have not gone (to see him/her))]
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4358)[2], text here
        於保伎美乃美許等加志古美伊弖久禮婆和努等里都伎弖伊比之古奈波毛
        opoki1mi1 no2 mi1-ko2to2 kasiko1mi itekureba wanu to2rituki1te ipi1si ko1napamo
        Oh, [how is] the dear one [to whom] I clung and spoke [when I] came out [here] respectfully obeying the words of the Great Lord?

    Etymology 5Edit

      This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

    PronounEdit

    (a) (kana )

    1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3456)[1], text here
        宇都世美能夜蘇許登乃敝波思氣久等母安良蘇比可禰弖乎許登奈須那
        utusemi1 no2 yaso1ko2to2 no2 pe1 pa sike2ku to2 mo araso1pi1kanete a wo ko2to2nasu na
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Derived termsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (a)

    Etymology 6Edit

    From (a, see above) +‎ (-re, thing, nominalizing suffix).

    PronounEdit

    (are) (kana あれ)

    1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 808)[4], text here
        多都乃麻乎阿礼波毛等米牟阿遠爾与志奈良乃美夜古邇許牟比等乃多仁
        tatu no2 ma wo are pa moto2memu awoni yo2si Nara no2 miyako1 ni ko2mu pi1to2 no2 ta ni
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3361)[1], text here
        安思我良能乎弖毛許乃母尓佐須和奈乃可奈流麻之豆美許呂安礼比毛等久
        asigara no2 wotemo-ko2no2mo ni sasu wana no2 *kanaru ma-sidumi1 ko2ro2 are pi1mo to2ku
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4298)[2], text here
        霜上尓安良礼多婆之里伊夜麻之尓安礼波麻為許牟年緒奈我久
        simo no2 upe2 ni arare tabasiri iya masi ni are pa mawiko2mu to2si no2 wo nagaku
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    DescendantsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada; Rikio Kudō; Masao Ōtani; Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (c. 759) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 3: Man’yōshū 3 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 2002, →ISBN.
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada; Rikio Kudō; Masao Ōtani; Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (c. 759) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 4: Man’yōshū 4 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 2003, →ISBN.
    3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    4. ^ Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada; Rikio Kudō; Masao Ōtani; Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (c. 759) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 1: Man’yōshū 1 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1999, →ISBN.

    VietnameseEdit