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U+83AB, 莫
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-83AB

[U+83AA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+83AC]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 140, +7, 11 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 10 strokes in mainland China and Japanese, cangjie input 廿日大 (TAK), four-corner 44430, composition or ⿱)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1035, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31078
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1494, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3217, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+83AB

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mraː
*mraːɡs
*maːl
*maː
*maː, *maːɡ
*maː
*maː
*maː, *maːɡ
*maː
*maːɡs
*maːɡs
*maːɡs
*maːɡs
*maːɡs
*maːɡ
*maːɡ
*maːɡ
*maːɡ
*maːɡ
*maːɡ
*maːɡ
*maːɡ
*maːɡ, *mraːɡ
*maːɡ
*mraːɡ
*mraːɡ

Pictogram (象形) – the sun () sinking into the bushes (); dusk. Original form of (OC *maːɡs, “dusk”).

The bottom was later distorted into .

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.

From (OC *ma, “there is no”) + distributive suffix *-k (Schuessler, 2007).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • mŏ̤h - vernacular (“don't”);
  • mŏk - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • bo̍k - literary;
    • bo̍h - vernacular.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mo⁵¹/
    Harbin /mɤ⁵³/
    Tianjin /mo⁵³/
    Jinan /mə²¹/
    Qingdao /mə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /mo²⁴/
    Xi'an /mo²¹/
    Xining /mɔ⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /muə¹³/
    Lanzhou /mə¹³/
    Ürümqi /mɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /mo²¹³/
    Chengdu /mo³¹/
    Guiyang /mo²¹/
    Kunming /mo³¹/
    Nanjing /moʔ⁵/
    Hefei /mɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /maʔ²/
    Pingyao /mʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /maʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /moʔ¹/
    Suzhou /noʔ³/
    Hangzhou /moʔ²/
    Wenzhou /mo²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /mɔʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /mo¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /mo²⁴/
    Xiangtan /mo²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /mɔʔ²/
    /mɵʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /mok̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /mok̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mɔk̚²/
    Nanning /mɔk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /mɔk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bɔk̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /moʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mz̩²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /mok̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /vo³³/ 不要
    /mo³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (103)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mɑk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mɑk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /mɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /mak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /mɑk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /mɑk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mɑk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mak › ‹ mak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mˁak/ /*mˁak/
    English there is no X such that X deliberate (v.) (loan)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9252
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*maːɡ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. none; nothing; not anything
    2. (literary or dialectal Mandarin, dialectal Cantonese, Gan, Hakka, Min Dong) do not; don't; must not
    3. particle indicating a rhetorical question
    4. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“do not”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 1, ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing , 別價
    Taiwan , 不要
    Harbin
    Jinan , 別價, 甭價, 不要
    Muping
    Luoyang , ,
    Wanrong , 不要
    Xi'an , 不敢
    Xining
    Xuzhou ,
    Lanzhou 不要
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan 1,
    Chengdu 1, 不要,
    Guiyang 不要
    Liuzhou 1, 莫要
    Yangzhou 1, 不要
    Nanjing 不要
    Hefei , 不要
    Cantonese Guangzhou , 唔好
    Hong Kong , 唔好
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 唔好
    Shunde
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 唔好
    Taishan 唔好
    Kaiping (Chikan) 唔好
    Dongguan , 唔好
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu , 唔好
    Yangjiang 1, 無好
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Nanning 冇要
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang 1
    Lichuan 毋要, 不要
    Pingxiang 不要
    Hakka Meixian 1, 毋愛, 毋好
    Xingning 毋愛
    Huidong (Daling) 毋好
    Qujiang 毋好
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 毋好
    Changting 毋要
    Liancheng 毋要
    Ninghua 毋要
    Yudu 毋要, 毋敢
    Ruijin 毋要
    Shicheng 毋要
    Shangyou 毋要
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 毋好
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 毋好
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 毋好
    Dongshi (Dabu) 毋好
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 毋好
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 毋好
    Hong Kong 毋好
    Sabah 毋愛
    Senai 毋好
    Huizhou Jixi 不要,
    Shexian 不要,
    Tunxi 不要,
    Jin Taiyuan 不要, 不敢
    Xinzhou 不要, ,
    Min Bei Jian'ou 伓敢, 伓讓, 1
    Min Dong Fuzhou 伓通, 1
    Fuqing 伓通
    Matsu 1
    Min Nan Xiamen 毋通, 毋愛, 2
    Quanzhou 毋通, 毋愛
    Zhangzhou 毋通, 2
    Taipei 2
    Kaohsiung 2
    Tainan 2
    Lukang 2
    Sanxia 莫去
    Yilan 毋通, 2
    Penang 2, 毋通
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou , 2
    Shantou , 2
    Haifeng 2
    Johor Bahru
    Haikou 無用, 2, 無莫
    Leizhou 無地
    Pinghua Nanning 冇要
    Wu Shanghai 勿要, 𧟰
    Suzhou 𧟰
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou 𧟰
    Chongming 𧟰
    Danyang 弗要, 𫸻
    Jinhua 𫸻, 弗要, 弗用
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha 1, 不要
    Shuangfeng 1
    Loudi 不要, 1
    Quanzhou

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    simp. and trad.
    variant forms


    Contraction of 毋愛毋爱 (m̄-ài).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    (Min Nan)

    1. do not; don't; must not
      [Min Nan]  ―  Mài bong góa! [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Don't touch me!
    2. to not want

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“do not”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 1, ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing , 別價
    Taiwan , 不要
    Harbin
    Jinan , 別價, 甭價, 不要
    Muping
    Luoyang , ,
    Wanrong , 不要
    Xi'an , 不敢
    Xining
    Xuzhou ,
    Lanzhou 不要
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan 1,
    Chengdu 1, 不要,
    Guiyang 不要
    Liuzhou 1, 莫要
    Yangzhou 1, 不要
    Nanjing 不要
    Hefei , 不要
    Cantonese Guangzhou , 唔好
    Hong Kong , 唔好
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 唔好
    Shunde
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 唔好
    Taishan 唔好
    Kaiping (Chikan) 唔好
    Dongguan , 唔好
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu , 唔好
    Yangjiang 1, 無好
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Nanning 冇要
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang 1
    Lichuan 毋要, 不要
    Pingxiang 不要
    Hakka Meixian 1, 毋愛, 毋好
    Xingning 毋愛
    Huidong (Daling) 毋好
    Qujiang 毋好
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 毋好
    Changting 毋要
    Liancheng 毋要
    Ninghua 毋要
    Yudu 毋要, 毋敢
    Ruijin 毋要
    Shicheng 毋要
    Shangyou 毋要
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 毋好
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 毋好
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 毋好
    Dongshi (Dabu) 毋好
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 毋好
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 毋好
    Hong Kong 毋好
    Sabah 毋愛
    Senai 毋好
    Huizhou Jixi 不要,
    Shexian 不要,
    Tunxi 不要,
    Jin Taiyuan 不要, 不敢
    Xinzhou 不要, ,
    Min Bei Jian'ou 伓敢, 伓讓, 1
    Min Dong Fuzhou 伓通, 1
    Fuqing 伓通
    Matsu 1
    Min Nan Xiamen 毋通, 毋愛, 2
    Quanzhou 毋通, 毋愛
    Zhangzhou 毋通, 2
    Taipei 2
    Kaohsiung 2
    Tainan 2
    Lukang 2
    Sanxia 莫去
    Yilan 毋通, 2
    Penang 2, 毋通
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou , 2
    Shantou , 2
    Haifeng 2
    Johor Bahru
    Haikou 無用, 2, 無莫
    Leizhou 無地
    Pinghua Nanning 冇要
    Wu Shanghai 勿要, 𧟰
    Suzhou 𧟰
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou 𧟰
    Chongming 𧟰
    Danyang 弗要, 𫸻
    Jinhua 𫸻, 弗要, 弗用
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha 1, 不要
    Shuangfeng 1
    Loudi 不要, 1
    Quanzhou

    Etymology 3Edit

    simp. and trad.

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Original form of (, “dusk; late”).
    2. a kind of vegetable

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. late
    2. end
    3. not be
    4. must not

    ReadingsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (mak, mo) (hangeul , )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: mạc ((mạt)(các)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: mác[1][2][3][4][5][6], mạc[1][2][5][6], mếch[1]

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit