- A person with a gender and/or sexuality that is not strictly male or female or heterosexual. Glossed by different references as "homosexual" or "berdache"/"two-spirit".
- David Leedom Shaul, A Concise Hopi and English Lexicon (ISBN 9027220158, 1985) (which glosses hova as "homosexual")
- Robert Christopher Basaldú, Hopi Hova: Anthropological Assumptions of Gendered Otherness in Native American Societies (1999)
- Gender and Material Culture in Archaeological Perspective (ISBN 0312223986, 2000)