See also: Kell

EnglishEdit

PronunciationEdit

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Etymology 1Edit

Compare caul.

NounEdit

kell (plural kells)

  1. (obsolete) The caul.
  2. (obsolete, figuratively) That which covers or envelops, like a caul; a net; a fold; a film.
  3. (obsolete) The cocoon or chrysalis of an insect.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Ben Jonson to this entry?)

Etymology 2Edit

NounEdit

kell (plural kells)

  1. A kiln.

Etymology 3Edit

A modification of kale.

NounEdit

kell (uncountable)

  1. A sort of pottage; kale.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Ainsworth to this entry?)

Part or all of this entry has been imported from the 1913 edition of Webster’s Dictionary, which is now free of copyright and hence in the public domain. The imported definitions may be significantly out of date, and any more recent senses may be completely missing.
(See the entry for kell in
Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.)


BretonEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin cōleus (testicle) (compare Cornish kell, Welsh caill).

NounEdit

kell f (plural kelloù, dual divgell)

  1. testicle

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin cella (compare Old Irish cell).

NounEdit

kell f (plural kelloù or killi)

  1. cell (of prisoner, monk):

MutationEdit


CornishEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (Revived Middle Cornish) IPA(key): [kɛlː]
  • (Revived Late Cornish) IPA(key): [kɛlʰ]

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin cōleus (testicle) (compare Breton kell, Welsh caill).

NounEdit

kell f (dual diwgell, plural kellow or kellyow)

  1. testicle

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin cella (compare Old Irish cell).

NounEdit

kell f (plural kellow or kellyow)

  1. cell

MutationEdit


EstonianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Swedish skälla.

NounEdit

kell (genitive kella, partitive kella)

  1. clock
  2. bell
  3. (plural, colloquial) balls, testicles

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit


HungarianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finno-Ugric *kelke- (to be necessary, need to, must, be obligatory). [1][2]

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [ ˈkɛlː]
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɛlː

VerbEdit

kell

  1. (auxiliary with a verb in the infinitive) must, need to, have to
    Ezt látnod kell.You have to / need to / must see it.
  2. to be needed
    Kell nekem az a ház.I need that house.

Usage notesEdit

Sometimes the subject of the verb is not one that does any action but the stimulus prompting sensory or emotional feeling (not deliberately), as in the case of people or things that interest someone, matter to someone, please someone or appeal to someone (or another entity), sometimes differently from the perspective in English. In these cases, the experiencer (the entity that receives sensory or emotional input) can take the accusative (e.g. interest) or the dative (e.g. appeal). The experiencer is expressed with the dative in the case of hiányzik (to be missing or missed by someone), ízlik (to taste good, to be pleasing [as of food]), kell (to be needed, necessary, or required), tetszik (to be appealing), and van/megvan (to be had, to be owned by someone).

If the experiencer is expressed with the accusative, the object may be the third person (him, her, it, or them), which is considered definite in Hungarian, or it may be a first- or second-person object (me, us, and you), considered as indefinite. For example, with the verb érdekel, it takes the definite form érdekli őt “he/she is interested” (literally, “it interests him/her”), and the indefinite form érdekel engem/téged/minket for “I am, you are, we are interested” (literally, “it interests me, you, us”) in present-tense singular. Verbs with a similar syntactic behavior include zavar (to be bothered by) and izgat (to be upset or intrigued by).[3]

ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Entry #281 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  2. ^ Zaicz, Gábor. Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN
  3. ^ See also Verbs and adjectives that behave differently (in English vs. in Hungarian), Által (’By’), on the past participles derived from such verbs, On verbs of emotion, with special regard to their aspectual properties, especially the chart on page 3. In addition, see Thematic relation and Theta role in Wikipedia.

Further readingEdit

  • kell in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh: A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962.

MalteseEdit

EtymologyEdit

From kien (was) + l- (to).

VerbEdit

kell- (imperfect ikoll)

  1. to belong to; expresses English have
    Kelli ktieb.
    I had a book.
    (literally, “It was to me a book.”)
    Ir-raġel kellu ktieb.
    The man had a book.
    (literally, “The man it was to him a book.”)
  2. (with following verb) to be obligatory for; to be necessary for; expresses English have to, must
    Kelli nikteb ktieb.
    I had to write a book.
    (literally, “It was to me (that) I write a book.”)

Usage notesEdit

  • The perfect of this verb expresses the past, while the imperfect expresses future and subjunctive senses. The present is expressed by forms of għand. This is equivalent to the situation in the underlying kien (to be), where the present is expressed (if expressed at all) by the personal pronouns.
  • The verbal inflection is that of a defective verb that inflects only for tense (imperfect ikoll), but not for person or number. They who “have” something, or “have to do” something, are given with the appropriate personal suffixes (as above: kelli = it was to me = I had; kellu = it was to him = he had; etc.).
  • Syntactically, it is not sound to define either of the two elements (possessor or thing possessed) as the object of the phrase. Rather the construction is that which in Arabic and Greek grammar is called a nominativus pendens: The possessor is prepositioned and referred back to with a personal suffix, while the thing possessed is the grammatical subject. This construction is generally popular in Maltese; for example: Ir-raġel qatluh. (They killed the man., literally The man, they killed him.).

InflectionEdit

See alsoEdit