Albanian

edit
 
Albanian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sq
 
Kalaja në Krujë - Krujë Castle

Etymology

edit

Borrowed from Ottoman Turkish قلعه (kale), from Persian قلعه (qal'e), from Arabic قَلْعَة (qalʕa).

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

kala f (plural kala, definite kalaja, definite plural kalatë)

  1. castle, fortress
    Synonym: kështjellë
  2. fortification
    Synonym: fortifikatë
  3. (figurative) ardent defender
  4. (figurative) hurdle, obstacle: something difficult to be overcome only by great effort
    u bë kalait became difficult
  5. (chess) rook
    Synonym: torrë

Declension

edit

Further reading

edit
  • “kala”, in FGJSSH: Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe [Dictionary of the modern Albanian language]‎[2] (in Albanian), 1980
  • kala”, in FGJSH: Fjalor i gjuhës shqipe [Dictionary of the Albanian language] (in Albanian), 2006
  • Mann, S. E. (1948) “kalá”, in An Historical Albanian–English Dictionary, London: Longmans, Green & Co., page 175

Atong (India)

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

kala (Bengali script কালা)

  1. deaf person

References

edit

Balinese

edit

Romanization

edit

kala

  1. Romanization of ᬓᬮ
  2. Romanization of ᬓᬵᬮ
  3. Romanization of ᬓᬮᬵ

Chamicuro

edit

Noun

edit

kala

  1. nothing

Adverb

edit

kala

  1. no, not

Cornish

edit

Noun

edit

kala

  1. straw (collective)

Estonian

edit
 
Kala

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Finnic *kala, from Proto-Uralic *kala.

Noun

edit

kala (genitive kala, partitive kala)

  1. fish

Declension

edit
Declension of kala (ÕS type 17u/sõna, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative kala kalad
accusative nom.
gen. kala
genitive kalade
partitive kala kalu
kalasid
illative kalla
kalasse
kaladesse
kalusse
inessive kalas kalades
kalus
elative kalast kaladest
kalust
allative kalale kaladele
kalule
adessive kalal kaladel
kalul
ablative kalalt kaladelt
kalult
translative kalaks kaladeks
kaluks
terminative kalani kaladeni
essive kalana kaladena
abessive kalata kaladeta
comitative kalaga kaladega

Derived terms

edit

Finnish

edit
 
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia fi
silakka ((Baltic) herring)
ahven ((European) perch)
lohi ((Atlantic) salmon)
särki ((common) roach)
erilaisia kaloja (different kinds of fish)

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Finnic *kala, from Proto-Uralic *kala.[1] Cognates include Northern Sami guolli, Ter Sami kɨllˈe, and Hungarian hal.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ˈkɑlɑ/, [ˈkɑ̝lɑ̝]
  • Rhymes: -ɑlɑ
  • Syllabification(key): ka‧la

Noun

edit

kala

  1. fish (aquatic animal)
    Hauki on kala.
    A pike is a fish.
    Tässä järvessä on paljon kalaa.
    There's lots of fish in this lake.
  2. fish (meat of the aforementioned aquatic animals)
    Syön usein kalaa.
    I often eat fish.
  3. (idiomatic, in locational cases and expressions) fishing (as a personal activity, used with the verbs olla (to be) and mennä (to go), lähteä (to leave), and käydä (to go and come back))
    olla kalassato be fishing
    käydä kalassato go fishing (and come back)
    mennä kalaanto go fishing
    lähteä kalaanto (leave and) go fishing
    lähteä kalalleto (leave and) go fishing
    Käytkö usein kalassa?
    Do you often go fishing?
  4. (in compounds) seafood
    Mennään kalaravintolaan.
    Let's go to a seafood restaurant.

Usage notes

edit
  • (fish, aquatic animals): Quite often used in the singular in a collective sense, as can be seen in one of the usage examples.

Declension

edit
Inflection of kala (Kotus type 9/kala, no gradation)
nominative kala kalat
genitive kalan kalojen
partitive kalaa kaloja
illative kalaan kaloihin
singular plural
nominative kala kalat
accusative nom. kala kalat
gen. kalan
genitive kalan kalojen
kalain rare
partitive kalaa kaloja
inessive kalassa kaloissa
elative kalasta kaloista
illative kalaan kaloihin
adessive kalalla kaloilla
ablative kalalta kaloilta
allative kalalle kaloille
essive kalana kaloina
translative kalaksi kaloiksi
abessive kalatta kaloitta
instructive kaloin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of kala (Kotus type 9/kala, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative kalani kalani
accusative nom. kalani kalani
gen. kalani
genitive kalani kalojeni
kalaini rare
partitive kalaani kalojani
inessive kalassani kaloissani
elative kalastani kaloistani
illative kalaani kaloihini
adessive kalallani kaloillani
ablative kalaltani kaloiltani
allative kalalleni kaloilleni
essive kalanani kaloinani
translative kalakseni kaloikseni
abessive kalattani kaloittani
instructive
comitative kaloineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative kalasi kalasi
accusative nom. kalasi kalasi
gen. kalasi
genitive kalasi kalojesi
kalaisi rare
partitive kalaasi kalojasi
inessive kalassasi kaloissasi
elative kalastasi kaloistasi
illative kalaasi kaloihisi
adessive kalallasi kaloillasi
ablative kalaltasi kaloiltasi
allative kalallesi kaloillesi
essive kalanasi kaloinasi
translative kalaksesi kaloiksesi
abessive kalattasi kaloittasi
instructive
comitative kaloinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative kalamme kalamme
accusative nom. kalamme kalamme
gen. kalamme
genitive kalamme kalojemme
kalaimme rare
partitive kalaamme kalojamme
inessive kalassamme kaloissamme
elative kalastamme kaloistamme
illative kalaamme kaloihimme
adessive kalallamme kaloillamme
ablative kalaltamme kaloiltamme
allative kalallemme kaloillemme
essive kalanamme kaloinamme
translative kalaksemme kaloiksemme
abessive kalattamme kaloittamme
instructive
comitative kaloinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative kalanne kalanne
accusative nom. kalanne kalanne
gen. kalanne
genitive kalanne kalojenne
kalainne rare
partitive kalaanne kalojanne
inessive kalassanne kaloissanne
elative kalastanne kaloistanne
illative kalaanne kaloihinne
adessive kalallanne kaloillanne
ablative kalaltanne kaloiltanne
allative kalallenne kaloillenne
essive kalananne kaloinanne
translative kalaksenne kaloiksenne
abessive kalattanne kaloittanne
instructive
comitative kaloinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative kalansa kalansa
accusative nom. kalansa kalansa
gen. kalansa
genitive kalansa kalojensa
kalainsa rare
partitive kalaansa kalojaan
kalojansa
inessive kalassaan
kalassansa
kaloissaan
kaloissansa
elative kalastaan
kalastansa
kaloistaan
kaloistansa
illative kalaansa kaloihinsa
adessive kalallaan
kalallansa
kaloillaan
kaloillansa
ablative kalaltaan
kalaltansa
kaloiltaan
kaloiltansa
allative kalalleen
kalallensa
kaloilleen
kaloillensa
essive kalanaan
kalanansa
kaloinaan
kaloinansa
translative kalakseen
kalaksensa
kaloikseen
kaloiksensa
abessive kalattaan
kalattansa
kaloittaan
kaloittansa
instructive
comitative kaloineen
kaloinensa

Derived terms

edit
compounds

References

edit
  1. ^ Junttila, Santeri, Kallio, Petri, Holopainen, Sampsa, Kuokkala, Juha, Pystynen, Juho, editors (2020–), “kala”, in Suomen vanhimman sanaston etymologinen verkkosanakirja[1] (in Finnish), retrieved 2024-01-01

Further reading

edit

Fula

edit

Etymology

edit

From Arabic كُلَّ (kulla).

Pronoun

edit

kala

  1. each, every, all

See also

edit

References

edit

Iban

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Adverb

edit

kala

  1. Semelfactive or non-iterative aspect i. e. the action or situation has happened once or more but did not repeat itself

Icelandic

edit

Etymology

edit

From Old Norse kala.

Pronunciation

edit

Verb

edit

kala (strong verb, third-person singular past indicative kól, third-person plural past indicative kólu, supine kalið)

  1. (impersonal) to become frostbitten
    Mig kól á tám.
    My toes became frostbitten.

Conjugation

edit
edit

Indonesian

edit

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ˈkala/
  • Hyphenation: ka‧la
  • Rhymes: -la, -a

Etymology 1

edit

From Malay kala, from Classical Malay kala, from Sanskrit काल (kāla, time) or Sanskrit कला (kalā, a division of time). Doublet of kali.

Noun

edit

kala (first-person possessive kalaku, second-person possessive kalamu, third-person possessive kalanya)

  1. time
    Synonyms: masa, waktu
  2. when: during the time that.
    Synonym: ketika
  3. (geology) epoch: a geochronologic unit of hundreds of thousands to millions of years; a subdivision of a period, and subdivided into ages (or sometimes subepochs).
    Synonym: epok (Standard Malay)
  4. tense;
    1. (grammar) Any of the forms of a verb which distinguish when an action or state of being occurs or exists.
    2. (linguistics, grammar, countable) An inflected form of a verb that indicates tense.
Derived terms
edit

Etymology 2

edit

From Malay kala, from Javanese ꦏꦭ (kala, stinging animal, scorpion), from Sanskrit कालक (kālaka, scorpion).

Noun

edit

kala (first-person possessive kalaku, second-person possessive kalamu, third-person possessive kalanya)

  1. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) any member of scorpiones order
  2. (obsolete) scorpion
    Synonym: kalajengking
Derived terms
edit

Etymology 3

edit

From Malay kala, from Classical Malay kala.

Noun

edit

kala (first-person possessive kalaku, second-person possessive kalamu, third-person possessive kalanya)

  1. (obsolete) silk
    Synonym: sutra

Etymology 4

edit

From Malay kala, from Classical Malay kala, from Javanese ꦏꦭ (kala, bird noose, snare), from Old Javanese kalā.

Noun

edit

kala (first-person possessive kalaku, second-person possessive kalamu, third-person possessive kalanya)

  1. (obsolete) snare
    Synonym: jerat

Etymology 5

edit

From Malay kala, from Arabic قَضَاء (qaḍāʔ). Doublet of qada.

Noun

edit

kala (first-person possessive kalaku, second-person possessive kalamu, third-person possessive kalanya)

  1. (obsolete) Synonym of qada
Derived terms
edit

Further reading

edit

Ingrian

edit
 
Kala.

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Finnic *kala, from Proto-Uralic *kala. Cognates include Finnish kala and Estonian kala.

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

kala

  1. fish
    • 1936, N. A. Iljin and V. I. Junus, Bukvari iƶoroin șkouluja vart, Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 11:
      Kapa, kala, kala, kana.
      Dried fish, fish, fish, hen.
    • 1936, V. I. Junus, P. L. Maksimov, Inkeroisin keelen oppikirja alkuşkouluja vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 37:
      Hää ono voimakas kala ja kasvaa suureks.
      It's a strong fish and grows big.
    • 1936, D. I. Efimov, Lukukirja: Inkeroisia alkușkouluja vart (toin osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 7:
      Kala, kala — ohto tiukkaa! Ota matokkaine suuhu.
      Fish, fish — quit playing! Put a mollusk in your mouth.

Declension

edit
Declension of kala (type 3/kana, no gradation, gemination)
singular plural
nominative kala kalat
genitive kalan kalloin
partitive kallaa kaloja
illative kallaa kalloi
inessive kalas kalois
elative kalast kaloist
allative kalalle kaloille
adessive kalal kaloil
ablative kalalt kaloilt
translative kalaks kaloiks
essive kalanna, kallaan kaloinna, kalloin
exessive1) kalant kaloint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.

Hypernyms

edit

Coordinate terms

edit

Derived terms

edit

References

edit
  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 126
  • Olga I. Konkova, Nikita A. Dyachkov (2014) Inkeroin Keel: Пособие по Ижорскому Языку[4], →ISBN, page 82

Javanese

edit

Romanization

edit

kala

  1. Romanization of ꦏꦭ

Karelian

edit
Regional variants of kala
North Karelian
(Viena)
kala
South Karelian
(Tver)
kala
 
Kala

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Finnic *kala. Cognates include Finnish kala and Estonian kala.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ˈkɑlɑ/
  • Hyphenation: ka‧la

Noun

edit

kala (genitive kalan, partitive kalua)

  1. fish

Declension

edit
Viena Karelian declension of kala (type 4/kala, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative kala kalat
genitive kalan kalojen
partitive kalua kaloja
illative kalah kaloih
inessive kalašša kaloissa
elative kalašta kaloista
adessive kalalla kaloilla
ablative kalalta kaloilta
translative kalakši kaloiksi
essive kalana kaloina
comitative kaloineh
abessive kalatta kaloitta
Tver Karelian declension of kala (type 4/kala no gradation)
singular plural
nominative kala kalat
genitive kalan kaloin
partitive kalua kaloida
illative kalah kaloih
inessive kalašša kaloissa
elative kalašta kaloista
adessive kalalla kaloilla
ablative kalalda kaloilda
translative kalakši kaloiksi
essive kalana kaloina
comitative kalanke kaloinke
abessive kalatta kaloitta
Possessive forms of kala
1st person kalani
2nd person kalaš
3rd person kalah
*) Possessive forms are very rare for adjectives and only used in substantivised clauses.

References

edit
  • A. V. Punzhina (1994) “kala”, in Словарь карельского языка (тверские говоры) [Dictionary of the Karelian language (Tver dialects)], →ISBN
  • P. M. Zaykov et al. (2015) “рыба”, in Venäjä-Viena Šanakirja [Russian-Viena Karelian Dictionary], →ISBN

Latvian

edit

Verb

edit

kala

  1. third-person singular/plural past indicative of kalt

Livvi

edit
 
Kala.

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Finnic *kala. Cognates include Finnish kala and Estonian kala.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ˈkɑlɑ/
  • Hyphenation: ka‧la

Noun

edit

kala (genitive kalan, partitive kalua)

  1. fish

Declension

edit
Declension of kala (Type 1/griba, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative kala kalat
genitive kalan kaloin
partitive kalua kaloi
illative kalah kaloih
inessive kalas kalois
elative kalaspäi kaloispäi
allative kalale kaloile
adessive kalal kaloil
ablative kalalpäi kaloilpäi
translative kalakse kaloikse
essive kalannu kaloinnu
abessive kalattah kaloittah
comitative kalanke kaloinke
instructive kaloin
prolative kalači

References

edit
  • N. Gilojeva, S. Rudakova (2009) Karjalan kielen Livvin murdehen algukursu [Beginners' course of Karelian language's Livvi dialect]‎[5] (in Livvi), Petrozavodsk, →ISBN, page 3
  • Tatjana Boiko (2019) Suuri Karjal-Venʹalaine Sanakniigu (livvin murreh) [The Big Karelian-Russian dictionary (Livvi dialect)], 2nd edition, →ISBN, page 92

Ludian

edit
 
Kala

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Finnic *kala.

Noun

edit

kala

  1. fish

Malay

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Etymology 1

edit

From Sanskrit काल (kāla, time).

Noun

edit

kala (Jawi spelling کالا, plural kala-kala, informal 1st possessive kalaku, 2nd possessive kalamu, 3rd possessive kalanya)

  1. time (inevitable passing of events)
  2. time (quantity of availability in time)
  3. time (time of day, as indicated by a clock, etc)
  4. time (particular moment or hour)
  5. time (measurement under some system of the time of day or moment in time)
  6. time (numerical indication of a particular moment in time)
Synonyms
edit

Etymology 2

edit

From Javanese kala (stinging animal).

Noun

edit

kala (Jawi spelling کالا, plural kala-kala, informal 1st possessive kalaku, 2nd possessive kalamu, 3rd possessive kalanya)

  1. scorpion

Ngadjunmaya

edit

Noun

edit

kala

  1. fire
  2. firewood

References

edit

Northern Sotho

edit

Noun

edit

kala

  1. branch (of a tree)

Old Javanese

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Etymology 1

edit

Borrowed from Sanskrit काला (kālā, black; dark).

Noun

edit

kala

  1. wicked, evil, base, false
Derived terms
edit
Descendants
edit
  • Javanese: ꦏꦭ (kala, evil; demon)

Etymology 2

edit

From Sanskrit शङ्ख (śaṅkha, trumpet, horn, literally shell, conch-shell) +‎ काल (kāla, time, hour).

Noun

edit

kala

  1. trumpet

Etymology 3

edit

From Sanskrit कालक (kālaka, scorpion).

Noun

edit

kala

  1. scorpion
Descendants
edit
  • Javanese: ꦏꦭ (kala, stinging animal)
    • Indonesian: kala (stinging animal)

Etymology 4

edit

Noun

edit

kala

  1. Alternative spelling of kalā (noose, snare)

Old Norse

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Germanic *kalaną, whence also Old English calan. Ultimately from an o-grade present of Proto-Indo-European *gel-.

Verb

edit

kala

  1. (impersonal, transitive with accusative) to freeze
    mik kellI freeze; I become frost-bitten

Conjugation

edit

Descendants

edit
  • Icelandic: kala
  • Norwegian Nynorsk: kala, (past participle) kalen
  • Swedish: kala (dialectal)

References

edit
  • kala”, in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Polish

edit

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ˈka.la/
  • Rhymes: -ala
  • Syllabification: ka‧la

Verb

edit

kala

  1. third-person singular present of kalać

Sakizaya

edit

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ka.ˈla/, [ka.ˈla]

Noun

edit

kala

  1. prey; game

Serbo-Croatian

edit

Noun

edit

kala (Cyrillic spelling кала)

  1. genitive singular of kal

Sumerian

edit

Romanization

edit

kala

  1. Romanization of 𒆗 (kala)

Swedish

edit

Adjective

edit

kala

  1. inflection of kal:
    1. definite singular
    2. plural

Tok Pisin

edit

Etymology

edit

From English color.

Noun

edit

kala

  1. color

Veps

edit
 
Kala

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Finnic *kala, from Proto-Uralic *kala.

Noun

edit

kala

  1. fish

Inflection

edit
Inflection of kala (inflection type 5/sana)
nominative sing. kala
genitive sing. kalan
partitive sing. kalad
partitive plur. kaloid
singular plural
nominative kala kalad
accusative kalan kalad
genitive kalan kaloiden
partitive kalad kaloid
essive-instructive kalan kaloin
translative kalaks kaloikš
inessive kalas kaloiš
elative kalaspäi kaloišpäi
illative kalaha
kalha
kaloihe
adessive kalal kaloil
ablative kalalpäi kaloilpäi
allative kalale kaloile
abessive kalata kaloita
comitative kalanke kaloidenke
prolative kaladme kaloidme
approximative I kalanno kaloidenno
approximative II kalannoks kaloidennoks
egressive kalannopäi kaloidennopäi
terminative I kalahasai
kalhasai
kaloihesai
terminative II kalalesai kaloilesai
terminative III kalassai
additive I kalahapäi
kalhapäi
kaloihepäi
additive II kalalepäi kaloilepäi

Derived terms

edit

References

edit
  • Zajceva, N. G., Mullonen, M. I. (2007) “рыба”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary]‎[6], Petrozavodsk: Periodika

Võro

edit
 
Kala

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Finnic *kala, from Proto-Uralic *kala.

Pronunciation

edit
  This entry needs an audio pronunciation. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record this word. The recorded pronunciation will appear here when it's ready.

Noun

edit

kala (genitive kala, partitive kalla)

  1. fish

Inflection

edit

Votic

edit
 
Kala

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Finnic *kala, from Proto-Uralic *kala.

Pronunciation

edit
  • (Luutsa, Liivtšülä) IPA(key): /ˈkɑlɑ/, [ˈkɑɫɑ]
  • Rhymes: -ɑlɑ
  • Hyphenation: ka‧la

Noun

edit

kala

  1. fish

Inflection

edit
Declension of kala (type III/jalkõ, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative kala kalad
genitive kala kalojõ, kaloi
partitive kalla kaloitõ, kaloi
illative kallasõ, kalla kaloisõ
inessive kalaz kaloiz
elative kalassõ kaloissõ
allative kalalõ kaloilõ
adessive kalallõ kaloillõ
ablative kalaltõ kaloiltõ
translative kalassi kaloissi
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the terminative is formed by adding the suffix -ssaa to the short illative (sg) or the genitive.
***) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka to the genitive.

References

edit
  • Hallap, V., Adler, E., Grünberg, S., Leppik, M. (2012) Vadja keele sõnaraamat [A dictionary of the Votic language], 2nd edition, Tallinn

Zacatepec Chatino

edit

Adjective

edit

kala

  1. born (to be)

Verb

edit

kala

  1. to join, to unite

Zigula

edit

Verb

edit

kala

  1. to hunt

Descendants

edit
  • Mbugu: kala

References

edit
  • Maarten Mous, The Making of a Mixed Language: The Case of Ma'a/Mbugu

Zulu

edit

Verb

edit

-kála

  1. to weigh

Inflection

edit
Tone H
Infinitive ukukala
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukukala ukungakali
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular kala -kale
Plural kalani -kaleni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyakala, ngikala engikalayo, engikala ngikala angikali engingakali ngingakali
2nd singular uyakala, ukala okalayo, okala ukala awukali ongakali ungakali
1st plural siyakala, sikala esikalayo, esikala sikala asikali esingakali singakali
2nd plural niyakala, nikala enikalayo, enikala nikala anikali eningakali ningakali
Class 1 uyakala, ukala okalayo, okala ekala akakali ongakali engakali
Class 2 bayakala, bakala abakalayo, abakala bekala abakali abangakali bengakali
Class 3 uyakala, ukala okalayo, okala ukala awukali ongakali ungakali
Class 4 iyakala, ikala ekalayo, ekala ikala ayikali engakali ingakali
Class 5 liyakala, likala elikalayo, elikala likala alikali elingakali lingakali
Class 6 ayakala, akala akalayo, akala ekala awakali angakali engakali
Class 7 siyakala, sikala esikalayo, esikala sikala asikali esingakali singakali
Class 8 ziyakala, zikala ezikalayo, ezikala zikala azikali ezingakali zingakali
Class 9 iyakala, ikala ekalayo, ekala ikala ayikali engakali ingakali
Class 10 ziyakala, zikala ezikalayo, ezikala zikala azikali ezingakali zingakali
Class 11 luyakala, lukala olukalayo, olukala lukala alukali olungakali lungakali
Class 14 buyakala, bukala obukalayo, obukala bukala abukali obungakali bungakali
Class 15 kuyakala, kukala okukalayo, okukala kukala akukali okungakali kungakali
Class 17 kuyakala, kukala okukalayo, okukala kukala akukali okungakali kungakali
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngikalile, ngikalē engikalile, engikalē ngikalile, ngikalē angikalanga engingakalanga ngingakalanga
2nd singular ukalile, ukalē okalile, okalē ukalile, ukalē awukalanga ongakalanga ungakalanga
1st plural sikalile, sikalē esikalile, esikalē sikalile, sikalē asikalanga esingakalanga singakalanga
2nd plural nikalile, nikalē enikalile, enikalē nikalile, nikalē anikalanga eningakalanga ningakalanga
Class 1 ukalile, ukalē okalile, okalē ekalile, ekalē akakalanga ongakalanga engakalanga
Class 2 bakalile, bakalē abakalile, abakalē bekalile, bekalē abakalanga abangakalanga bengakalanga
Class 3 ukalile, ukalē okalile, okalē ukalile, ukalē awukalanga ongakalanga ungakalanga
Class 4 ikalile, ikalē ekalile, ekalē ikalile, ikalē ayikalanga engakalanga ingakalanga
Class 5 likalile, likalē elikalile, elikalē likalile, likalē alikalanga elingakalanga lingakalanga
Class 6 akalile, akalē akalile, akalē ekalile, ekalē awakalanga angakalanga engakalanga
Class 7 sikalile, sikalē esikalile, esikalē sikalile, sikalē asikalanga esingakalanga singakalanga
Class 8 zikalile, zikalē ezikalile, ezikalē zikalile, zikalē azikalanga ezingakalanga zingakalanga
Class 9 ikalile, ikalē ekalile, ekalē ikalile, ikalē ayikalanga engakalanga ingakalanga
Class 10 zikalile, zikalē ezikalile, ezikalē zikalile, zikalē azikalanga ezingakalanga zingakalanga
Class 11 lukalile, lukalē olukalile, olukalē lukalile, lukalē alukalanga olungakalanga lungakalanga
Class 14 bukalile, bukalē obukalile, obukalē bukalile, bukalē abukalanga obungakalanga bungakalanga
Class 15 kukalile, kukalē okukalile, okukalē kukalile, kukalē akukalanga okungakalanga kungakalanga
Class 17 kukalile, kukalē okukalile, okukalē kukalile, kukalē akukalanga okungakalanga kungakalanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngākala engākala ngākala angikalanga engingakalanga ngingakalanga
2nd singular wākala owākala wākala awukalanga ongakalanga ungakalanga
1st plural sākala esākala sākala asikalanga esingakalanga singakalanga
2nd plural nākala enākala nākala anikalanga eningakalanga ningakalanga
Class 1 wākala owākala ākala akakalanga ongakalanga engakalanga
Class 2 bākala abākala bākala abakalanga abangakalanga bengakalanga
Class 3 wākala owākala wākala awukalanga ongakalanga ungakalanga
Class 4 yākala eyākala yākala ayikalanga engakalanga ingakalanga
Class 5 lākala elākala lākala alikalanga elingakalanga lingakalanga
Class 6 ākala ākala ākala awakalanga angakalanga engakalanga
Class 7 sākala esākala sākala asikalanga esingakalanga singakalanga
Class 8 zākala ezākala zākala azikalanga ezingakalanga zingakalanga
Class 9 yākala eyākala yākala ayikalanga engakalanga ingakalanga
Class 10 zākala ezākala zākala azikalanga ezingakalanga zingakalanga
Class 11 lwākala olwākala lwākala alukalanga olungakalanga lungakalanga
Class 14 bākala obākala bākala abukalanga obungakalanga bungakalanga
Class 15 kwākala okwākala kwākala akukalanga okungakalanga kungakalanga
Class 17 kwākala okwākala kwākala akukalanga okungakalanga kungakalanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingakala ngingakala ngingekale ngingekale
2nd singular ungakala ungakala ungekale ungekale
1st plural singakala singakala singekale singekale
2nd plural ningakala ningakala ningekale ningekale
Class 1 angakala engakala angekale engekale
Class 2 bangakala bengakala bangekale bengekale
Class 3 ungakala ungakala ungekale ungekale
Class 4 ingakala ingakala ingekale ingekale
Class 5 lingakala lingakala lingekale lingekale
Class 6 angakala engakala angekale engekale
Class 7 singakala singakala singekale singekale
Class 8 zingakala zingakala zingekale zingekale
Class 9 ingakala ingakala ingekale ingekale
Class 10 zingakala zingakala zingekale zingekale
Class 11 lungakala lungakala lungekale lungekale
Class 14 bungakala bungakala bungekale bungekale
Class 15 kungakala kungakala kungekale kungekale
Class 17 kungakala kungakala kungekale kungekale
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizokala engizokala ngizokala angizukala engingezukala ngingezukala
2nd singular uzokala ozokala uzokala awuzukala ongezukala ungezukala
1st plural sizokala esizokala sizokala asizukala esingezukala singezukala
2nd plural nizokala enizokala nizokala anizukala eningezukala ningezukala
Class 1 uzokala ozokala ezokala akazukala ongezukala engezukala
Class 2 bazokala abazokala bezokala abazukala abangezukala bengezukala
Class 3 uzokala ozokala uzokala awuzukala ongezukala ungezukala
Class 4 izokala ezokala izokala ayizukala engezukala ingezukala
Class 5 lizokala elizokala lizokala alizukala elingezukala lingezukala
Class 6 azokala azokala ezokala awazukala angezukala engezukala
Class 7 sizokala esizokala sizokala asizukala esingezukala singezukala
Class 8 zizokala ezizokala zizokala azizukala ezingezukala zingezukala
Class 9 izokala ezokala izokala ayizukala engezukala ingezukala
Class 10 zizokala ezizokala zizokala azizukala ezingezukala zingezukala
Class 11 luzokala oluzokala luzokala aluzukala olungezukala lungezukala
Class 14 buzokala obuzokala buzokala abuzukala obungezukala bungezukala
Class 15 kuzokala okuzokala kuzokala akuzukala okungezukala kungezukala
Class 17 kuzokala okuzokala kuzokala akuzukala okungezukala kungezukala
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyokala engiyokala ngiyokala angiyukala engingeyukala ngingeyukala
2nd singular uyokala oyokala uyokala awuyukala ongeyukala ungeyukala
1st plural siyokala esiyokala siyokala asiyukala esingeyukala singeyukala
2nd plural niyokala eniyokala niyokala aniyukala eningeyukala ningeyukala
Class 1 uyokala oyokala eyokala akayukala ongeyukala engeyukala
Class 2 bayokala abayokala beyokala abayukala abangeyukala bengeyukala
Class 3 uyokala oyokala uyokala awuyukala ongeyukala ungeyukala
Class 4 iyokala eyokala iyokala ayiyukala engeyukala ingeyukala
Class 5 liyokala eliyokala liyokala aliyukala elingeyukala lingeyukala
Class 6 ayokala ayokala eyokala awayukala angeyukala engeyukala
Class 7 siyokala esiyokala siyokala asiyukala esingeyukala singeyukala
Class 8 ziyokala eziyokala ziyokala aziyukala ezingeyukala zingeyukala
Class 9 iyokala eyokala iyokala ayiyukala engeyukala ingeyukala
Class 10 ziyokala eziyokala ziyokala aziyukala ezingeyukala zingeyukala
Class 11 luyokala oluyokala luyokala aluyukala olungeyukala lungeyukala
Class 14 buyokala obuyokala buyokala abuyukala obungeyukala bungeyukala
Class 15 kuyokala okuyokala kuyokala akuyukala okungeyukala kungeyukala
Class 17 kuyokala okuyokala kuyokala akuyukala okungeyukala kungeyukala
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngikale ngingakali
2nd singular ukale ungakali
1st plural sikale singakali
2nd plural nikale ningakali
Class 1 akale angakali
Class 2 bakale bangakali
Class 3 ukale ungakali
Class 4 ikale ingakali
Class 5 likale lingakali
Class 6 akale angakali
Class 7 sikale singakali
Class 8 zikale zingakali
Class 9 ikale ingakali
Class 10 zikale zingakali
Class 11 lukale lungakali
Class 14 bukale bungakali
Class 15 kukale kungakali
Class 17 kukale kungakali
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngakala ngangakala, angakala, angangakala
2nd singular wakala wangakala, awakala, awangakala
1st plural sakala sangakala, asakala, asangakala
2nd plural nakala nangakala, anakala, anangakala
Class 1 wakala wangakala, akakala, akangakala
Class 2 bakala bangakala, abakala, abangakala
Class 3 wakala wangakala, awakala, awangakala
Class 4 yakala yangakala, ayakala, ayangakala
Class 5 lakala langakala, alakala, alangakala
Class 6 akala angakala, awakala, awangakala
Class 7 sakala sangakala, asakala, asangakala
Class 8 zakala zangakala, azakala, azangakala
Class 9 yakala yangakala, ayakala, ayangakala
Class 10 zakala zangakala, azakala, azangakala
Class 11 lwakala lwangakala, alwakala, alwangakala
Class 14 bakala bangakala, abakala, abangakala
Class 15 kwakala kwangakala, akwakala, akwangakala
Class 17 kwakala kwangakala, akwakala, akwangakala

References

edit