See also: kõva and kóva

FinnishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *kova.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈkoʋɑ/, [ˈko̞ʋɑ]
  • Rhymes: -oʋɑ
  • Syllabification: ko‧va

AdjectiveEdit

kova (comparative kovempi, superlative kovin)

  1. hard (of an object, resistant to pressure)
    Antonym: pehmeä
  2. strict, harsh, severe, unfriendly, hard, stern, brutal (of behavior or character)
    Synonym: ankara
    Antonyms: pehmeä, lempeä
  3. tough, hard (demanding a lot of effort to endure)
  4. strong, hard, heavy, severe (having a high impact or influence, often translated as the adverb very in translating an accompanying noun as an adjective)
    Minulla on kova jano.
    I'm very thirsty.
    Antonym: (of wind) heikko
  5. loud
    Radio on liian kovalla. (not to be confused with the adverb kovaa)
    The radio is too loud.
    Synonyms: luja, kovaääninen, äänekäs
    Antonym: hiljainen
  6. live (of ammunition)
    Tappaja väitti, että hän ei tiennyt aseen olevan ladattu kovilla panoksilla.
    The killer claimed that he didn't know that the weapon was loaded with live rounds.
  7. high, great, ambitious, remarkable
    Pidän ilmapiiristä, mutta heidän hintansa ovat aika kovat.
    I like the atmosphere, but their prices are quite high.
    kova kysyntä
    great demand
    Heillä on kovat suunnitelmat - ensin valloitetaan Pohjoismaiden markkinat, sitten koko maailma.
    They have ambitious plans – first the Nordic market, then the whole world. / They have ambitious plans to first conquer the Nordic market and then the whole world. (literally: first the Nordic market will be conquered)
  8. eager, devoted
    Hän on kova kalamies.
    He's an eager fisherman.
    Hän on kova Kärppä-fani.
    He's a devoted fan of the Kärpät.
  9. tough (rowdy or rough)
    Hän on kova kaveri.
    He is a tough guy.
  10. hard, hardworking
    Hän on kova työmies.
    He's a hard worker.
  11. excellent, great, well-known
    Alle kaksi tuntia on kova aika maratonilla.
    Less than two hours is an excellent time on a marathon.
    Niin, mutta olenkin kovassa kunnossa. Olen kova nimi urheilupiireissä.
    Yes, but I'm in a great shape. I'm a well-known name in the sports circles.
    Synonyms: erinomainen, mainio
  12. (physics, ferromagnetism) hard (of material: having the capability of being a permanent magnet)
  13. (finance) unregulated, market-rate, unsubsidized, hard
    ~ valuutta : hard currency (globally traded currency that is expected to serve as a reliable and stable store of value)
    ~ raha : unsubsidized financing; especially as opposite to aravalaina (type of subsidized loan for social housing)
    Synonyms: (unsubsidized) vapaarahoitteinen, (market-based) markkinaehtoinen
  14. (of light) harsh, hard (intensive and creating disagreeable and abrupt contrasts in colour or shading)
  15. (of water) hard (high on dissolved calcium and other minerals)
  16. (phonetics) hard, unvoiced (pronounced without using the vocal cords)
  17. (vulgar) hard (of a man, sexually aroused)
  18. (pornography) hard, hardcore
    kova porno
    hardcore pornography

DeclensionEdit

Inflection of kova (Kotus type 10/koira, no gradation)
nominative kova kovat
genitive kovan kovien
partitive kovaa kovia
illative kovaan koviin
singular plural
nominative kova kovat
accusative nom. kova kovat
gen. kovan
genitive kovan kovien
kovainrare
partitive kovaa kovia
inessive kovassa kovissa
elative kovasta kovista
illative kovaan koviin
adessive kovalla kovilla
ablative kovalta kovilta
allative kovalle koville
essive kovana kovina
translative kovaksi koviksi
instructive kovin
abessive kovatta kovitta
comitative kovine
Possessive forms of kova (type koira)
Rare. Only used with substantive adjectives.
possessor singular plural
1st person kovani kovamme
2nd person kovasi kovanne
3rd person kovansa

Derived termsEdit

CompoundsEdit

AnagramsEdit


HungarianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From an otherwise unattested stem + -a (diminutive suffix).[1]

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [ˈkovɒ]
  • Hyphenation: ko‧va
  • Rhymes: -vɒ

NounEdit

kova (plural kovák)

  1. flint

DeclensionEdit

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative kova kovák
accusative kovát kovákat
dative kovának kováknak
instrumental kovával kovákkal
causal-final kováért kovákért
translative kovává kovákká
terminative kováig kovákig
essive-formal kovaként kovákként
essive-modal
inessive kovában kovákban
superessive kován kovákon
adessive kovánál kováknál
illative kovába kovákba
sublative kovára kovákra
allative kovához kovákhoz
elative kovából kovákból
delative kováról kovákról
ablative kovától kováktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
kováé kováké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
kováéi kovákéi
Possessive forms of kova
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. kovám kováim
2nd person sing. kovád kováid
3rd person sing. kovája kovái
1st person plural kovánk kováink
2nd person plural kovátok kováitok
3rd person plural kovájuk kováik

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ kova in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)

Further readingEdit

  • kova in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

IngrianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *kova. Cognates include Finnish kova and Estonian kõva.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

kova (genitive kovan, partitive kovvaa)

  1. hard
  2. harsh
  3. strong, sturdy

DeclensionEdit

Declension of kova (type 3/koira, no gradation, gemination)
singular plural
nominative kova kovat
genitive kovan kovviin
partitive kovvaa kovvia
illative kovvaa kovvii
inessive kovaas koviis
elative kovast kovist
allative kovalle koville
adessive kovaal koviil
ablative kovalt kovilt
translative kovaks koviks
essive kovanna
kovvaan
kovinna
kovviin
exessive1) kovant kovint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)

ReferencesEdit

  • V. I. Junus (1936) Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[1], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 59
  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 199
  • Olga I. Konkova; Nikita A. Dyachinkov (2014) Inkeroin Keel: Пособие по Ижорскому Языку[2], →ISBN, page 72

KarelianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *kova.

AdjectiveEdit

kova

  1. hard

KilivilaEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

kova

  1. fire

ReferencesEdit

  • Gunter Senft (1986), Kilivila: the Language of the Trobriand Islanders. Berlin • New York • Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyter, p. 291. →ISBN

LithuanianEdit

 
Lithuanian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia lt

EtymologyEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (ko) IPA(key): [koːˈvɐ]
  • (va) IPA(key): [ˈkǒːvɐ]

NounEdit

kovà f (plural kõvos) stress pattern 4 [2]

  1. fight, struggle

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

Related termsEdit

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Brückner, Aleksander (1927), “kuć”, in Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego [Etymological Dictionary of the Polish Language] (in Polish), Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna, published 1985, page 279
  2. ^ “kova” in Balčikonis, Juozas et al. (1954), Dabartinės lietuvių kalbos žodynas. Vilnius: Valstybinė politinės ir mokslinės literatūros leidykla.
  • “kova” in Martsinkyavitshute, Victoria (1993), Hippocrene Concise Dictionary: Lithuanian-English/English-Lithuanian. New York: Hippocrene Books. →ISBN

LudianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *kova.

AdjectiveEdit

kova

  1. hard

TurkishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Ottoman Turkish قوغه(koğa. kova), from Proto-Turkic *kobɣa.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [ˈkɔvɑ]
  • Hyphenation: ko‧va

NounEdit

kova (definite accusative kovayı, plural kovalar)

  1. bucket

DeclensionEdit

Inflection
Nominative kova
Definite accusative kovayı
Singular Plural
Nominative kova kovalar
Definite accusative kovayı kovaları
Dative kovaya kovalara
Locative kovada kovalarda
Ablative kovadan kovalardan
Genitive kovanın kovaların

VepsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *kova.

AdjectiveEdit

kova

  1. hard (not soft)
  2. solid
  3. stiff, rigid
  4. strong
  5. strict, stern
  6. harsh, severe

InflectionEdit

Inflection of kova
nominative sing. kova
genitive sing. kovan
partitive sing. kovad
partitive plur. kovid
singular plural
nominative kova kovad
accusative kovan kovad
genitive kovan koviden
partitive kovad kovid
essive-instructive kovan kovin
translative kovaks kovikš
inessive kovas koviš
elative kovaspäi kovišpäi
illative ? kovihe
adessive koval kovil
ablative kovalpäi kovilpäi
allative kovale kovile
abessive kovata kovita
comitative kovanke kovidenke
prolative kovadme kovidme
approximative I kovanno kovidenno
approximative II kovannoks kovidennoks
egressive kovannopäi kovidennopäi
terminative I ? kovihesai
terminative II kovalesai kovilesai
terminative III kovassai
additive I ? kovihepäi
additive II kovalepäi kovilepäi

ReferencesEdit