Last modified on 20 December 2014, at 23:08

See also: and

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 5 +10, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十十人弓 (JJON), four-corner 48417, composition ⿸⿰𠦝𠂉)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 84, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 204
  • Dae Jaweon: page 172, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 56, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4E7E

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  + semantic 

Etymology 1Edit

 
(surname); male; strong; one of the Eight Trigrams; dry; clean
trad.
simp.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kan (dry, dry up). Cognate with Burmese ခန်း (hkan:, to dry up, to evaporate).

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (乾), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 見 (28)
Final: 寒
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 古寒切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑn/ /kɑn/ /kɑn/ /kɑn/ /kan/ /kɑn/ /kɑn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
gān ‹ kan › /*[k]ˤar/ dry

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
3698 1 /*kaːn/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. dry
  2. clean
    乾淨干净 ("clean")
  3. adoptive; foster
  4. in vain; for nothing

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

 
(surname); male; strong; one of the Eight Trigrams; dry; clean
simp. and trad.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-ka-n (heaven, sky, sun). Cognate with Tibetan མཁའ (mkha'), ནམ་མཁའ (nam mkha', sky, heaven).

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (乾), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 群 (30)
Final: 仙
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 渠焉切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiᴇn/ /gi̯ɛn/ /ɡiɛn/ /ɡiɛn/ /gian/ /ɡĭɛn/ /ɡjæn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
qián ‹ gjen › /*[g](r)ar/ heaven; heavenly

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
3709 1 /*ɡran/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. One of the Eight Trigrams.
    乾道 ("ways of heaven; natural law")
  2. sky; heaven
  3. sun
  4. emperor
  5. man, male
  6. A surname​.

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. northwest
  2. dehydrate
  3. arid
  4. drought
  5. imbibe
  6. paradise
  7. the emperor

ReadingsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana いぬい, romaji inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

  1. (obsolete) northwest

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana いぬい, romaji Inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

  1. A surname​.

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(geon, gan) (hangeul , , revised geon, gan, McCune-Reischauer kŏn, kan)

  1. (하늘 건, haneul-): sky
  2. (건괘 건, geon-gwae-): or the 1st of the Eight Trigrams (☰☱☲☳☴☵☶☷ or 八卦 (팔괘, palgwae))
  3. (임금 건, im-geum-): king
  4. (마를 건, mareul-): to be dry

SynonymsEdit

  • (, cheon)
  • (, gan) (translingual; simplified hanzi for 乾)

AntonymsEdit

See alsoEdit

八卦 (팔괘, palgwae)

7+0=111+000 (U+2630)* sky
6+1=110+001 (U+2631) marsh
5+2=101+010 (U+2632) fire
4+3=100+011 (U+2633) thunder
3+4=011+100 (U+2634) wind
2+5=010+101 (U+2635) water
1+6=001+110 (U+2636) mountain
0+7=000+111 (U+2637) earth

[*] Decimal pair=Binary pair (Codepoint). (The solid bar "—" of the Trigrams may be assigned to the binary number "1", while the split bar "--" to "0".)


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(kiền, cạn, can, càn, khan, gàn, phạm)

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ReferencesEdit