U+51CD, 凍
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51CD

[U+51CC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51CE]
See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 15 +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 戈一木田 (IMDW), four-corner 35196, composition)

  1. freeze
  2. cold, congeal
  3. jelly

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 132, character 46
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1670
  • Dae Jaweon: page 297, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 298, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+51CD

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ, *toːŋʔ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋs

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *toːŋ, *toːŋs): semantic  + phonetic (OC *toːŋ).

PronunciationEdit


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (5) (5)
Final () (1) (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/təwŋ/ /təwŋH/
Li
Rong
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Wang
Li
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dōng dòng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tuwngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˤoŋ-s/
English freeze

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 2441 2447
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*toːŋ/ /*toːŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. cold; (of weather) chilly

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of (“cold”)
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan 冷凊
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian) 寒人
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Chaozhou
Shantou
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. frozen

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Related termsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(dong) (hangeul , revised dong, McCune-Reischauer tong)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(đống, đông, gióng, rúng, đóng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.