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See also:
U+51CD, 凍
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51CD

[U+51CC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51CE]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 15, +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 戈一木田 (IMDW), four-corner 35196, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 132, character 46
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1670
  • Dae Jaweon: page 297, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 298, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+51CD

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ, *toːŋʔ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋs

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *toːŋ, *toːŋs): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *toːŋ).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • tòng - literary;
  • tàng - vernacular.
Note:
  • dong3 - literary;
  • dang3 - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (5) (5)
Final () (1) (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/təwŋ/ /təwŋH/
Li
Rong
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Wang
Li
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dōng dòng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tuwngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˁoŋ-s/
English freeze

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 2441 2447
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*toːŋ/ /*toːŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. cold; (of weather) chilly
  2. to freeze
  3. jelly
  4. A surname​.

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of (“cold”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan , 冷凊
Chengdu ,
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou ,
Hong Kong ,
Taishan
Yangjiang ,
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian) ,
Liudui (S. Sixian) , 寒人
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu) ,
Hsinchu (Raoping) ,
Yunlin (Zhao'an) ,
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou ,
Min Dong Fuzhou ,
Min Nan Xiamen , ,
Quanzhou , ,
Zhangzhou , ,
Taipei , ,
Penang ,
Philippines (Manila) , ,
Chaozhou ,
Shantou ,
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou ,
Xiang Changsha ,
Shuangfeng ,

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. frozen

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Related termsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(dong) (hangeul , revised dong, McCune–Reischauer tong)

  1. freeze
  2. cold, congeal
  3. jelly

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(đống, đông, gióng, rúng, đóng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.