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U+51DD, 凝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51DD

[U+51DC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51DE]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 15, +14, 16 strokes, cangjie input 戈一心大人 (IMPKO), four-corner 37181, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 133, character 45
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 298, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 301, character 18
  • Unihan data for U+51DD

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms
𣲝
𡷪
𠘥

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋɯːs
*ŋɯːs, *hŋɯːs, *ŋɯʔ, *ŋɯs
*ŋɯːs, *ŋɯɡ
*ŋrɯːs, *ŋɯʔ, *ŋɯs
*ŋ̊ʰl'ɯ
*ŋɯ
*ŋɯ, *ŋɯɡ
*ŋɯ
*ŋɯʔ
*ŋɯʔ, *ŋɯɡ
*ŋrɯŋ, *ŋrɯŋs

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • gêng - literary;
  • gîn - vernacular.
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: ngêng5 / ngiêng5 / geng5 / ngang5
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: ngêng / ngiêng / kṳ̂ng / ngâng
    • IPA (key): /ŋeŋ⁵⁵/, /ŋieŋ⁵⁵/, /kɯŋ⁵⁵/, /ŋaŋ⁵⁵/
Note:
  • ngêng5/ngiêng5 - literary (ngiêng5 - Chaozhou);
  • geng5 - vernacular;
  • ngang5 - vernacular (dialectal usage, "cold").

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /niŋ³⁵/
Harbin /niŋ²⁴/ ~固
/niŋ⁵³/ 肉湯~了
Tianjin /niŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ȵiŋ⁴²/
/iŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /niŋ⁴²/
/iŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /niŋ⁴²/
/iŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /niŋ²⁴/
Xining /ȵiə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /niŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ȵĩn⁵³/
/lĩn⁵³/
Ürümqi /ȵiŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nin²¹³/
Chengdu /ȵin³¹/
Guiyang /nin²¹/
Kunming /nĩ³¹/
Nanjing /lin²⁴/
Hefei /lin⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /niəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /nĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
Suzhou /ȵin¹³/
Hangzhou /ȵin²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵaŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /niʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ȵin¹³/
Xiangtan /ȵin¹²/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /kʰen¹¹/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /jeŋ²¹/
Nanning /neŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /jiŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /giŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋiŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋi²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋeŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋeŋ³¹/
/xeŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (31) (31)
Final () (133) (133)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie 𩜁
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨŋ/ /ŋɨŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋɨŋ/ /ŋɨŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋieŋ/ /ŋieŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋiŋ/ /ŋiŋH/
Li
Rong
/ŋiəŋ/ /ŋiəŋH/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭəŋ/ /ŋĭəŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi̯əŋ/ /ŋi̯əŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yíng yìng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
níng
Middle
Chinese
‹ nging ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ](r)əŋ/ (< uvular?)
English freeze, coagulate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 14902 14903
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋrɯŋ/ /*ŋrɯŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to coagulate; to congeal; to freeze
  2. to focus; to concentrate
  3. (Teochew) cold; (of weather) chilly
    [Teochew]  ―  ngang5 si2 [Peng'im]  ―  very cold

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of (“cold”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan , 冷凊
Chengdu ,
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou ,
Hong Kong ,
Taishan
Yangjiang ,
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian) ,
Liudui (S. Sixian) , 寒人
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu) ,
Hsinchu (Raoping) ,
Yunlin (Zhao'an) ,
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou ,
Min Dong Fuzhou ,
Min Nan Xiamen , ,
Quanzhou , ,
Zhangzhou , ,
Taipei , ,
Penang ,
Philippines (Manila) ,
Chaozhou ,
Shantou ,
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou ,
Xiang Changsha ,
Shuangfeng ,

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. congeal

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eung) (hangeul , revised eung, McCune–Reischauer ŭng, Yale ung)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ngưng, ngừng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.