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TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 120, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 女火一 (VFM), four-corner 21910, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 916, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27243
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1343, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3363, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+7D05

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡoːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • è̤ng - colloquial;
  • hùng - literary ("successful;
  • red bunting").
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • âng - colloquial;
    • hông - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xuŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /xuŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /xuŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /xuŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /xəŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xuŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /xuŋ²⁴/
    Xining /xuə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /xuŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /xũn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xuŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xoŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /xoŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /xoŋ²¹/
    Kunming /xoŋ³¹/
    Nanjing /xoŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /xəŋ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /xũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦoŋ²³/
    Suzhou /ɦoŋ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦoŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦoŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xuʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /xan⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /xoŋ¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɦən¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /fuŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /fuŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ²¹/
    Nanning /huŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /huŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ³⁵/
    /aŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /øyŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ⁵⁵/
    /aŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔŋ³¹/
    /aŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hóng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hóng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ huwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡˤoŋ/
    English pink

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4055
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. red
      /   ―  hóng  ―  red (color)
      /   ―  hóngchá  ―  black tea (literally, “red tea”)
    2. (colloquial) popular; in vogue
    3. The red clothes and bunting used on festive occasions.
      /   ―  hóng  ―  to drape in red silk as a sign of honor or for festivity
      /   ―  hóngbāo  ―  red envelope / red packet
    4. (figuratively) revolutionary; Communist; Red
      /   ―  hóngjūn  ―  Red army
    5. worldly
    6. women's
    7. bonus; dividend
      /   ―  fēnhóng  ―  distribute or draw dividends
    8. (Cantonese) blood tofu
      / [Cantonese]  ―  zyu1 hung4 [Jyutping]  ―  pig blood tofu
    9. A surname​. Hong

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Substitute character for (gōng).
    2. Substitute character for (gōng).
      /   ―  gōng  ―  the feminine arts (e.g. needlework, sewing, embroidery)
    3. Placename in the State of Lu during the Spring and Autumn Period in Chinese history, northeast of modern Tai'an, Shandong.

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Substitute character for (jiàng).

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. crimson
    2. female
    3. work done by women

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    (kurenai, beni, ): hexadecimal color code #D71345
     
    (kurenai, beni): the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius
    Kanji in this term
    くれない
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    ⟨kure no2 awi⟩/kurenawi//kurenai/

    From Old Japanese.

    Shift from 呉の藍 (Kure no ai):[1][2] (Kure, China) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (ai, “indigo”: by extension, “dye”). The safflower, from which the crimson dye was extracted, was brought to Japan from China.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くれない, rōmaji kurenai, historical hiragana くれなゐ)

    1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
      Synonyms: 紅色 (kurenai-iro, kōshoku, beni-iro), 丹紅 (tankō)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 19, poem 4139), text here
         (はるの) (その) (くれなゐ) () () () (ももの) (はな)下照道 (したでるみち) ()出立 (いでたつ)𡢳嬬 (をとめ) [Man'yōgana]
         (はる) (その) (くれなゐ)にほふ (もも) (はな) (した) () (みち) () ()娘子 (をとめ) [Modern spelling]
        haru no sono kurenai niou momo no hana shitaderu michi ni idetatsu otome
        My whole spring arbor radiates a crimson glow: blossoms of the peach shine down on the garden path where a maiden steps in view.[3]
    2. the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), from which this color is extracted
      Synonyms: 呉の藍 (Kure no ai), 紅花 (kōka, benibana), 末摘花 (suetsumuhana)
      • 905, Kokin Wakashū (book 13, poem 661)
         (くれなゐ) (いろ)にはいでじ (かく) () (した)にかよひて (こひ) ()ぬとも
        kurenai no iro ni wa ideji kakure nu no shita ni kayoite koi wa shinu to mo
        I shall not show it as a safflower flaunts its red―not though I perish of a love kept as secret as streams in a hidden marsh.[4]
    Derived termsEdit
    ProverbsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana くれない, rōmaji Kurenai)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 2Edit

     
    (beni): lipstick
     
    (beni): rouge
    Kanji in this term
    べに
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    */peni//feni//beni/

    First attested in The Pillow Book, completed in 1002.

    Shift from *heni, attested in the Wamyō Ruijushō (938 CE) with the original sense of "rouge".

    The ni is definitely (ni, red earth, cinnabar), while the initial he/be remains uncertain.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana べに, rōmaji beni)

    1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
      Synonyms: 紅色 (kurenai-iro, kōshoku, beni-iro), 丹紅 (tankō)
    2. Short for 紅花 (benibana). the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), from which this color is extracted
    3. the crimson pigment extracted from safflower petals, used in cosmetics and as a food coloring
      Synonym: 臙脂 (enji)
    4. rouge (red cosmetic traditionally made from safflowers)
      Synonym: 頬紅 (hōbeni)
    5. lipstick, lip liner (also traditionally made from safflowers)
      Synonym: 口紅 (kuchibeni)
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana べに, rōmaji Beni)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 3Edit

     
    (aka): hexadecimal color code #FF0000
    Kanji in this term
    あか
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    Alternate spelling for (aka, red).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あか, rōmaji aka)

    1. Alternative spelling of (aka, red)
    Usage notesEdit

    The spelling for aka carries connotations of a deeper red or crimson color.

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana あか, rōmaji Aka)

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 4Edit

     
    (momi): A princess doll showing the momi kimono liner.
    Kanji in this term
    もみ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    From 揉み (momi, kneading, stem form of verb momu), by extension from the kneading of cloth during the dyeing process.

    Alternative formsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana もみ, rōmaji momi)

    1. silk cloth dyed an even shade of one color, often a deep gold dyed again with crimson, traditionally used as a kimono liner
      Synonym: 本紅 (hon-momi)
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana もみ, rōmaji Momi)

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    こう
    Grade: 6
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦuŋ).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana こう, rōmaji )

    1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
      Synonym: 紅色 (kurenai-iro, kōshoku, beni-iro)
    IdiomsEdit
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana こう, rōmaji )

    1. a female given name

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ Edwin A. Cranston (1998) The Gem-Glistening Cup, illustrated edition, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 466
    4. ^ Helen Craig McCullough (1985) Brocade by Night: Kokin Wakashū and the Court Style in Japanese Classical Poetry, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 264

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (hong, gong) (hangeul , , McCune–Reischauer hong, kong, Yale hong, kong)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (hồng, hường)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.