See also:
U+7D05, 紅
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7D05

[U+7D04]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7D06]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 120, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 女火一 (VFM), four-corner 21910, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 916, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27243
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1343, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3363, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+7D05

Chinese

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trad.
simp.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Classical)
  • (Gan)

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɡoːŋ) : semantic (silk) + phonetic (OC *koːŋ).

Etymology

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(OC *l'uːŋ, “red”) could be a variant of (OC *ɡoːŋ) (Schuessler, 2007). May be related to (OC *kroːŋs, *ɡoːŋ, “rainbow”).

Originally referred to lighter shades of red; gradually replaced (chì, “red”) as the basic color term for "red".

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • è̤ng - colloquial;
  • hùng - literary ("successful;
  • red bunting").
Note:
  • âng - colloquial;
  • hông - literary.
Note:
  • ang5 - colloquial;
  • hong5 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xuŋ³⁵/
Harbin /xuŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /xuŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /xuŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /xəŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xuŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /xuŋ²⁴/
Xining /xuə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /xuŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /xũn⁵³/
Ürümqi /xuŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /xoŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /xoŋ³¹/
Guiyang /xoŋ²¹/
Kunming /xoŋ³¹/
Nanjing /xoŋ²⁴/
Hefei /xəŋ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xuəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /xũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦoŋ²³/
Suzhou /ɦoŋ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦoŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /ɦoŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /xuʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xan⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /xoŋ¹³/
Xiangtan /ɦən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /fuŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /fuŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ²¹/
Nanning /huŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /huŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /hɔŋ³⁵/
/aŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /øyŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /hoŋ⁵⁵/
/aŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /hɔŋ³¹/
/aŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter huwng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦəwŋ/
Li
Rong
/ɣuŋ/
Wang
Li
/ɣuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hóng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hung4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hóng
Middle
Chinese
‹ huwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɡˁoŋ/
English pink

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4055
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡoːŋ/

Definitions

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  1. red
      ―  hóng  ―  red (color)
      ―  hóngchá  ―  black tea (literally, “red tea”)
      ―  hóngbāo  ―  red packet
    綠色盲绿色盲  ―  hónglǜ sèmáng  ―  red-green colour blindness
  2. (colloquial) popular; in vogue
      ―  fānhóng  ―  to be popular again
    邁克爾·傑克遜沒有以前那麼 [MSC, trad.]
    迈克尔·杰克逊没有以前那么 [MSC, simp.]
    Màikè'ěr Jiékèxùn méiyǒu yǐqián nàme hóng le. [Pinyin]
    Michael Jackson is not as popular as he used to be.
  3. the red clothes and bunting used on festive occasions
      ―  hóng  ―  to drape in red silk as a sign of honor or for festivity
  4. festive occasion; wedding
    白喜事白喜事  ―  hóngbáixǐshì  ―  weddings and funerals
  5. (figurative) revolutionary; Communist; Red
      ―  hóngjūn  ―  Red army
    又專又专  ―  yòuhóngyòuzhuān  ―  to have a procommunist mindset along with professional skill
  6. (business, finance) bonus; extra dividend
      ―  fēnhóng  ―  distribute or draw dividends
  7. (literary) flower
      ―  cánhóng  ―  fallen petals
  8. (literary) beautiful woman
  9. (literary) blood
      ―  luòhóng  ―  to bleed as an indication of a broken virginity
  10. (euphemistic, Cantonese, Hakka) blood tofu
    [Cantonese]  ―  zyu1 hung4 [Jyutping]  ―  pig blood tofu
    [Cantonese]  ―  gai1 hung4 [Jyutping]  ―  chicken blood tofu
  11. a surname: Hong

Synonyms

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  • (red):

Compounds

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Pronunciation 2

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Note:
  • kang - vernacular;
  • kong - literary.

Definitions

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  1. Substitute character for (gōng).
  2. Substitute character for (gōng).
      ―  gōng  ―  the feminine arts (e.g. needlework, sewing, embroidery)
  3. Placename in the State of Lu during the Spring and Autumn Period in Chinese history, northeast of modern Tai'an, Shandong.

Compounds

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Pronunciation 3

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Definitions

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  1. Substitute character for (jiàng).

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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(kurenai, beni, ): hexadecimal color code #D71345
 
(kurenai, beni): the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius
Kanji in this term
くれない
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

⟨kure no2 awi⟩/kurenawi//kurenai/

From Old Japanese.

Shift from 呉の藍 (Kure no ai),[1][2] itself a compound of (Kure, China) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (ai, indigodye)). The safflower, from which the crimson dye was extracted, was brought to Japan from China.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(くれない) (kurenaiくれなゐ (kurenawi)?

  1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
    Synonyms: 紅色 (kurenai-iro, kōshoku, beni-iro), 丹紅 (tankō)
  2. the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), from which this color is extracted
    Synonyms: 呉の藍 (Kure no ai), 紅花 (kōka, benibana), 末摘花 (suetsumuhana)
    • 905, Kokin Wakashū (book 13, poem 661)
      (くれなゐ)(いろ)にはいでじ(かく)()(した)にかよひて(こひ)()ぬとも
      kurenai no iro ni wa ideji kakure nu no shita ni kayoite koi wa shinu to mo
      I shall not show it as a safflower flaunts its red―not though I perish of a love kept as secret as streams in a hidden marsh.[3]
  3. a 伽羅 (kyara)-class incense
Derived terms
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Proverbs
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Proper noun

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(くれない) (Kurenaiくれなゐ (kurenawi)?

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 2

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(beni): lipstick
 
(beni): rouge
Kanji in this term
べに
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

*/peni//beni/

First attested in The Pillow Book, completed in 1002.

Shift from *heni, attested in the Wamyō Ruijushō (938 CE) with the original sense of "rouge".

The ni is definitely (ni, red earth, cinnabar), while the initial pe/be remains uncertain.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(べに) (beni

  1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
    Synonyms: 紅色 (kurenai-iro, kōshoku, beni-iro), 丹紅 (tankō)
  2. Short for 紅花 (benibana). the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), from which this color is extracted
  3. the crimson pigment extracted from safflower petals, used in cosmetics and as a food coloring
    Synonym: 臙脂 (enji)
  4. rouge (red cosmetic traditionally made from safflowers)
    Synonym: 頬紅 (hōbeni)
  5. lipstick, lip liner (also traditionally made from safflowers)
    Synonym: 口紅 (kuchibeni)
Derived terms
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Idioms
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Proper noun

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(べに) (Beni

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 3

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(aka): hexadecimal color code #FF0000
Kanji in this term
あか
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

Alternative spelling for (aka, red).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(あか) (aka

  1. Alternative spelling of (aka, red)
Usage notes
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The spelling for aka carries connotations of a deeper red or crimson color.

Proper noun

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(あか) (Aka

  1. a female given name

Etymology 4

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(momi): A princess doll showing the momi kimono liner.
Kanji in this term
もみ
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

From 揉み (momi, kneading, stem form of verb momu), by extension from the kneading of cloth during the dyeing process.

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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(もみ) (momi

  1. silk cloth dyed an even shade of one color, often a deep gold dyed again with crimson, traditionally used as a kimono liner
    Synonym: 本紅 (hon-momi)
Derived terms
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Proper noun

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(もみ) (Momi

  1. a female given name

Etymology 5

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(): hexadecimal color code #D71345
Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 6
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC huwng).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(こう) (

  1. the color crimson, a vivid red edging towards pink
    Synonym: 紅色 (kurenai-iro, kōshoku, beni-iro)
Idioms
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Derived terms
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Affix

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(こう) (

  1. crimson
  2. safflower
  3. female
  4. Substitute character for : work done by women

Proper noun

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(こう) (

  1. a female given name

References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Helen Craig McCullough (1985) Brocade by Night: Kokin Wakashū and the Court Style in Japanese Classical Poetry, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 264

Korean

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Etymology 1

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Hanja

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(eumhun 붉을 (bulgeul hong))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Etymology 2

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Hanja

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(eumhun 상복 (sangbok gong))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Old Japanese

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Etymology

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Shift from 呉の藍 (Kure no2 awi),[1][2] itself a compound of (Kure, China) +‎ (no2, possessive particle) +‎ (awi, indigodye).

Noun

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(kurenawi) (kana くれなゐ)

  1. a safflower, Carthamus tinctorius
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 19, poem 4139:
      , text here
      春苑尓保布桃花下照道尓出立𡢳嬬
      paru no2 so2no2 kurenawi nipopu momo no2 pana sitaderu mi1ti ni idetatu woto2me1
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Japanese:(くれない) (kurenai)

References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Vietnamese

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Chữ Hán

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: Hán Việt readings: hồng ((hồ)(công)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], hường[5]
: Nôm readings: hồng[1][2][4][5][3], hường[2][6][5], hông[7]

  1. Chữ Hán form of hồng (pink).
  2. Chữ Hán form of hường (pink).

Compounds

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References

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