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See also: and 𭐴
U+591A, 多
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-591A

[U+5919]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+591B]
多 U+2F85D, 多
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F85D
夆
[U+2F85C]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 夢
[U+2F85E]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 36, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈弓戈 (NINI), four-corner 27207, composition夕)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 246, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 489, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 862, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+591A

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𡖈

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔl'aːl
*ʔl'aːlʔ, *ʔl'aːls, *ʔr'aːls, *hr'aːl, *l̥ʰjaːlʔ, *l̥ʰjalʔ, *l̥ʰjɯs
*ʔl'aːls, *ʔl'aːds
*ʔl'aːls, *l̥ʰaːl, *l̥ʰaːn
*daːʔ, *tjaː
*l'aːlʔ, *l'alʔ
*naːlʔ
*naːlʔ, *l̥ʰjalʔ, *lal
*ʔr'aːl, *ʔr'aːls
*ɦljeːl, *lal
*ʔleːl, *ʔlil
*sʰlo, *l'al
*l'al, *l̥ʰjalʔ
*l'al, *lal
*ʔljjal, *l̥ʰjal
*ʔljalʔ, *l̥ʰjalʔ, *ɦljalʔ
*l̥ʰjalʔ
*l̥ʰjalʔ, *ɦljal, *ɦljalʔ
*l̥ʰjalʔ, *lal
*l̥ʰjalʔ
*l̥ʰjalʔ
*l̥ʰjals, *hljals
*ŋral
*ŋrals
*ŋrals
*lal
*lal
*lal
*lal, *lalʔ
*lal
*lal
*ɢljad

Ideogrammic compound (會意) – two pieces of meat (). In the bronze script, was corrupted into due to visual similarity. The form with was inherited in later scripts.

Chi (2010) suggests that meat is scarce in ancient times, so two pieces of meat is a lot, citing a passage from Mencius:

七十可以 [MSC, trad. and simp.][▼ expand/hide]
Qīshí zhě kěyǐ shí ròu yǐ. [Pinyin]
Persons of seventy years may eat meat.

Chang Ping-chuan suggests that it is the duplicative nature of the character that gives the meaning of "many", just like in (“forest”), from (“tree; wood”).

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with (OC *tjaː, *tja, “many; all”), (OC *taː, “all”), (OC *hljaɡs, “many”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Related to Proto-Tai *ʰlaːjᴬ (many, much), whence Thai หลาย (lǎai, many).

PronunciationEdit


Note: duó - colloquial variant (“so, how, what”).
Note: doe1 - colloquial variant (“few”).
Note:
  • duói - vernacular;
  • dó - literary;
  • do̿ - limited (e.g. 多謝).
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ta/
    Li
    Rong
    /tɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /tɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    duō
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    duō
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ta ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[t.l]ˁaj/
    English many

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2637
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔl'aːl/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. many; much; a lot of; numerous
      Antonyms: (shǎo)
      街上  ―  Jiēshàng yǒu hěn duō rén.  ―  There is a lot of people in the street
    2. (after an amount) over; and more; more than
      /   ―  liǎng nián duō  ―  more than two years
    3. (used in comparison structure 得多, 多了) much more; a lot more; far more
        ―  Tā bǐ wǒ gāo de duō.  ―  He is a lot taller than I am.
      病人今天  ―  Bìngrén jīntiān hǎo duō le.  ―  The patient is much better today.
    4. more
      應該運動 / 应该运动  ―  Wǒ yīnggāi duō yùndòng.  ―  I should exercise more.
      / [Cantonese]  ―  kam2 do1 zoeng1 pei5 [Jyutping]  ―  put on one more blanket
      今天昨天穿外套 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Jīntiān bǐ zuótiān lěng, děi duō chuān yī jiàn wàitào. [Pinyin]
      Today is colder than yesterday, so you have to put on one more jacket.
      屋企 [Cantonese, trad.]
      屋企 [Cantonese, simp.]
      uk1 kei5 do1 zo2 jat1 go3 jan4 [Jyutping]
      the house has a new member
    5. extra; in excess
      真係啤酒 [Cantonese, trad.]
      真系啤酒 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Keoi5 zan1 hai6 hou2 ji6 zeoi3, jam2 do1 loeng5 bui1 be1 zau2 zau6 lam3 zo2 laa3. [Jyutping]
      He gets drunk really easily. He passed out after drinking a few extra glasses of beer.
    6. (used in question) how; how much; what
      學校距離 [MSC, trad.]
      学校距离 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ dào xuéxiào yào zǒu duō yuǎn de jùlí? [Pinyin]
      What distance do you have to walk to school ?
        ―  duō gāo?  ―  How tall are you?
    7. (emphasis in exclamations) so; how; what
      漂亮  ―  Kàn tā duō piàoliàng a!  ―  Look how pretty she is!
      帽子可愛 [MSC, trad.]
      帽子可爱 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā dài de màozǐ duō kě'ài ya! [Pinyin]
      What an adorable hat she is wearing! / The hat she is wearing is so adorable!
    8. to have a lot
    9. to have more; to have too much; to have too many
      [MSC, trad.]
      [MSC, simp.]
      Tā mǎi le sì zhāng piào, duō le yī zhāng. [Pinyin]
      He bought four tickets, which was one too many.
    10. (Cantonese) few; little
      [Cantonese]  ―  gam3 doe1 doe1 [Jyutping]  ―  just this much (meaning “just very few”)
    11. (Cantonese) Short for 多士 (duōshì, “toast”).

    Usage notesEdit

    • (over, more than): When the number is smaller or equal to 10, can be put after the measure word. If it is bigger than ten, has to be put before the measure word.
    • (more): Placing after the verb is correct but it is less natural than placing it before.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“many; much”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Harbin
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Wanrong
    Xi'an
    Xining
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi , 托洛
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing ,
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Dongguan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian
    Yudu
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Pingtan
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Hsinchu
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi)
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Loudi

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. many, much

    ReadingsEdit

    (Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

    CompoundsEdit

    Derived termsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ta-)

    1. multi-
       () (げん) () () (しょ)
      tagengojisho
      multilingual dictionary

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 많을 (maneul da))

    1. many, a lot of

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (đa, nhật)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.