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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 36, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈弓戈 (NINI), four-corner 27207, composition夕)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 246, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 489, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 862, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+591A

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𡖈

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔl'aːl
*ʔl'aːlʔ, *ʔl'aːls, *ʔr'aːls, *hr'aːl, *l̥ʰjaːlʔ, *l̥ʰjalʔ, *l̥ʰjɯs
*ʔl'aːls, *ʔl'aːds
*ʔl'aːls, *l̥ʰaːl, *l̥ʰaːn
*daːʔ, *tjaː
*l'aːlʔ, *l'alʔ
*naːlʔ
*naːlʔ, *l̥ʰjalʔ, *lal
*ʔr'aːl, *ʔr'aːls
*ɦljeːl, *lal
*ʔleːl, *ʔlil
*sʰlo, *l'al
*l'al, *l̥ʰjalʔ
*l'al, *lal
*ʔljjal, *l̥ʰjal
*ʔljalʔ, *l̥ʰjalʔ, *ɦljalʔ
*l̥ʰjalʔ
*l̥ʰjalʔ, *ɦljal, *ɦljalʔ
*l̥ʰjalʔ, *lal
*l̥ʰjalʔ
*l̥ʰjalʔ
*l̥ʰjals, *hljals
*ŋral
*ŋrals
*ŋrals
*lal
*lal
*lal
*lal, *lalʔ
*lal
*lal
*ɢljad

Ideogrammic compound (會意) – two pieces of meat (). In the bronze script, was corrupted into due to visual similarity. The form with was inherited in later scripts.

Chi (2010) suggests that meat is scarce in ancient times, so two pieces of meat is a lot, citing a passage from Mencius:

七十可以 [MSC, trad. and simp.][▼ expand/hide]
Qīshí zhě kěyǐ shí ròu yǐ. [Pinyin]
Persons of seventy years may eat meat.

Chang Ping-chuan suggests that it is the duplicative nature of the character that gives the meaning of "many", just like in (“forest”), from (“tree; wood”).

EtymologyEdit

Related to Proto-Tai *ʰlaːjᴬ (many, much), whence Thai หลาย (lǎai, many).

PronunciationEdit


Note: duó - colloquial variant (“so, how, what”).
Note: doe1 - colloquial variant (“few”).
Note:
  • duói - vernacular;
  • dó - literary;
  • do̿ - limited (e.g. 多謝).
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ta/
    Li
    Rong
    /tɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /tɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    duō
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    duō
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ta ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[t.l]ˁaj/
    English many

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2637
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔl'aːl/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. many; much; a lot of; numerous
      Antonyms: (shǎo)
      • 街上  ―  Jiēshàng yǒu hěn duō rén.  ―  There is a lot of people in the street
    2. (after an amount) over; and more; more than
      • /   ―  liǎng nián duō  ―  more than two years
    3. (used in comparison structure 得多, 多了) much more; a lot more; far more
      •   ―  Tā bǐ wǒ gāo de duō.  ―  He is a lot taller than I am.
      • 病人今天  ―  Bìngrén jīntiān hǎo duō le.  ―  The patient is much better today.
    4. more
    5. extra; in excess
    6. (used in question) how; how much; what
    7. (emphasis in exclamations) so; how; what
    8. to have a lot
    9. to have more; to have too much; to have too many
    10. (Cantonese) few; little
      • [Cantonese]  ―  gam3 doe1 doe1 [Jyutping]  ―  just this much (meaning “just very few”)
    11. (Cantonese) Short for 多士 (duōshì, “toast”).

    Usage notesEdit

    • (over, more than): When the number is smaller or equal to 10, can be put after the measure word. If it is bigger than ten, has to be put before the measure word.
    • (more): Placing after the verb is correct but it is less natural than placing it before.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“many; much”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Harbin
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Jiedian
    Xi'an
    Xining
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi 托洛
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Dongguan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian
    Yudu
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Pingtan
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Hsinchu
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Loudi

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. many, much

    ReadingsEdit

    (Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

    CompoundsEdit

    Derived termsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ta-)

    1. multi-
       () (げん) () () (しょ)
      tagengojisho
      multilingual dictionary

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (da) (hangeul , revised da, McCune–Reischauer ta)

    1. many, a lot of

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (đa, nhật)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.