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Punctuation markEdit

  1. Indicate that a sentence is unfinished because the speaker has been interrupted.
  2. Demarcates parenthetical thought. See — —.
  3. Indicates a logical consequence. See also : (the colon).
    • 1962, Jack Frohlichstein, Mathematical Fun, Games and Puzzles, Courier Corporation, →ISBN, page 9:
      Bet anyone he can't correctly name the next highest number to every number which you will give him. []
      43 — he will say 44
      87 — he will say 88
      123 — he will say 124
  4. Indicates aposiopesis, an abrupt breaking-off in speech. See also (the ellipsis).
  5. Separates a term from its definition.
    • 2011, Adam Rizvi, Click Start to Begin: Windows XP Basics, Click Start Publishing Ltd., →ISBN, page 22:
      Refresh This will refresh the current folder, updating it with any new files or settings.
  6. Indicates a lack of data in a table[1]
  7. Alternative form of (horizontal bar; quotation dash; introduces a line of dialogue)
  8. censored letters.
    Dn. Fk.


For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:—.

Derived termsEdit

Usage notesEdit

In English, this symbol is called em dash.

Derived termsEdit

  • (two-em dash)
  • (three-em dash)

See alsoEdit



  1. ^ Joan G. Nagle, Handbook for preparing engineering documents: from concept to completion, 1995, p. 114:
    We can use the word none or N/D (no data), or insert an em dash; any of these entries show that we haven't simply forgotten to fill the cell. N/A is commonly used for not applicable. It's good practice to footnote N/A or N/D the first time it is used.


Russian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ru

Punctuation markEdit

  1. Indicates zero (omission) of the present tense of быть (bytʹ). Called тире́ (tirɛ́) in Russian.
    Vrémja — dénʹgi.
    Time is money.

Usage notesEdit

  • "—" is not used when the subject is a pronoun; e.g., я ру́сский (ja rússkij, I am Russian) or with predicative adjectives.