From Middle English turf, torf, from Old English turf (“turf, sod, soil, piece of grass covered earth, greensward”), from Proto-West Germanic *turb, from Proto-Germanic *turbz (“turf, lawn”), from Proto-Indo-European *derbʰ- (“tuft, grass”). Cognate with Dutch turf (“turf”), Middle Low German torf (“peat, turf”) (whence German Torf and German Low German Torf), Swedish torv (“turf”), Norwegian torv (“turf”), Icelandic torf (“turf”), Russian трава (trava, “grass”), Sanskrit दर्भ (darbhá, “a kind of grass”), दूर्वा (dū́rvā, “bent grass”).
- (General American) IPA(key): /tɝf/
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /tɜːf/
Audio (AU) (file)
- Rhymes: -ɜː(ɹ)f
- Homophone: TERF
- (uncountable) A layer of earth covered with grass; sod.
- 1897 December (indicated as 1898), Winston Churchill, chapter 8, in The Celebrity: An Episode, New York, N.Y.: The Macmillan Company; London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd., OCLC 222716698:
- Miss Thorn began digging up the turf with her lofter: it was a painful moment for me. ¶ “You might at least have tried me, Mrs. Cooke,” I said.
- 2018 May 26, Daniel Taylor, “Liverpool go through after Mohamed Salah stops Manchester City fightback”, in The Guardian (London):
- It was a sixth successive defeat for Klopp in a major final and at the final whistle, with Karius burying his face into the turf, there was not exactly a stampede of team-mates wanting to console him.
- (countable) A piece of such a layer cut from the soil. May be used as sod to make a lawn, dried for peat, stacked to form earthen structures, etc.
- 1908, Sir William Schlich, editor, Forest Utilization (Schlich's Manual of Forestry):
- In ordinary peat-bogs, however, where turves are cut, there is always a large percentage of waste peat resulting from the digging, drying or transport of the turves, which can be utilized only by moulding it.
- (countable, Ireland) A sod of peat used as fuel.
- (uncountable, slang) A territory claimed by a person, gang, etc. as their own.
- (uncountable, with "the") A racetrack; or the sport of racing horses.
- To cover with turf; to create a lawn by laying turfs.
- (Ultimate Frisbee) To throw a frisbee well short of its intended target, usually causing it to hit the ground within 10 yards of its release.
- (business) To fire from a job or dismiss from a task.
- Eight managers were turfed after the merger of the two companies.
- (business) To cancel a project or product.
- The company turfed the concept car because the prototype performed poorly.
- (informal, transitive) To expel, eject, or throw out; to turf out.
- 1968, Eric Herne, The Haunted Islands, page 18:
- He has the mistaken idea that he is a lap dog, and loves to be nursed, especially by ladies, but eighty-five pounds on your lap is no joke, and he can never understand why he gets turfed off.
- 1988, Simon Haw with Richard Frame, For Hearth and Home: The Story of Maritzburg College, 1863-1988, page 166:
- At the same time as College was being unceremoniously turfed from their premises, a similar process was affecting the Estcourt School.
- (medical slang, transitive) To transfer or attempt to transfer (a patient or case); to eschew or avoid responsibility for.
- 1996, Jeffrey E. Nash and James M. Calonico, The Meaning of Social Interaction: An Introduction to Social Psychology, page 139:
- "Sure thing, I buffed her, and they turfed her to urology, but she bounced back to me!" […] They want to transfer responsibility for her to another branch of the hospital (turf her).
See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.
turf (plural turfok)
|Inflection (stem in -o-, back harmony)|
possessive - singular
possessive - plural
|Possessive forms of turf|
|possessor||single possession||multiple possessions|
|1st person sing.||turfom||turfjaim|
|2nd person sing.||turfod||turfjaid|
|3rd person sing.||turfja||turfjai|
|1st person plural||turfunk||turfjaink|
|2nd person plural||turfotok||turfjaitok|
|3rd person plural||turfjuk||turfjaik|
- turf in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
turf f (nominative plural tyrf)
- Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller (1898), “turf”, in An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 2nd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
turf m (plural turfs)