See also: Virus, vírus, vīrus, vīruss, virüs, and -virus

EnglishEdit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Wikispecies has information on:

Wikispecies

 
The virions that carry the Marburg virus

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin vīrus (poison, slime, venom), via rhotacism from Proto-Italic *weisos, from Proto-Indo-European *wisós (fluidity, slime, poison). First use in the computer context by David Gerrold in his 1972 book When HARLIE Was One.

PronunciationEdit

  • enPR: vīʹrəs, IPA(key): /ˈvaɪɹəs/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -aɪɹəs

NounEdit

virus (countable and uncountable, plural viruses or virusses or (rare) vira or (proscribed) viri or (proscribed) virii)

  1. A submicroscopic, non-cellular structure consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat, that requires a living host cell to replicate, and often causes disease in the host organism.
    • 2001, Leslie Iversen, Drugs: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford 2001, p. 64)
      Viruses are the smallest and most simplified forms of life.
    • 2013 May-June, Katie L. Burke, “In the News”, in American Scientist, volume 101, number 3, page 193:
      Bats host many high-profile viruses that can infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome and Ebola.
  2. A disease caused by these organisms.
    He caught a virus and had to stay home from school.
  3. (archaic) Venom, as produced by a poisonous animal etc.
    • 1890, Aluísio Azevedo, The Slum:
      Brazil, that inferno where every budding flower and every buzzing bluebottle fly bears a lascivious virus.
  4. (computing) A type of malware which can covertly transmit itself between computers via networks (especially the Internet) or removable storage such as disks, often causing damage to systems and data; also computer virus.
  5. (computing, proscribed) Any type of malware.

SynonymsEdit

HypernymsEdit

HyponymsEdit

Derived termsEdit


DescendantsEdit

TranslationsEdit

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit


AsturianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin virus.

NounEdit

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus

AzerbaijaniEdit

EtymologyEdit

Ultimately from Latin virus.

NounEdit

virus (definite accusative virusu, plural viruslar)

  1. (medicine) virus (DNA/RNA causing disease)
  2. (computing) computer virus

DeclensionEdit

Further readingEdit

  • virus” in Obastan.com.

CatalanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin virus.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus

Related termsEdit


CzechEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin virus.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

virus m

  1. virus (submicroscopic, non-cellular structure)
  2. virus (type of computer malware)

DeclensionEdit

Related termsEdit

Further readingEdit


DanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin virus.

NounEdit

virus c or n (singular definite virussen or virusset, plural indefinite virus or virusser or vira, plural definite virussene or virusserne or viraene)

  1. virus

DutchEdit

 
Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nl

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin vīrus. Coined in the virological sense by Martinus Beijerinck; the word had been previously used for pathogens, although not for viruses in the modern sense. The computing sense derives from English virus.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈviː.rʏs/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: vi‧rus

NounEdit

virus n (plural virussen, diminutive virusje n)

  1. (microbiology) virus
  2. (computer science) virus

Usage notesEdit

Like most Latin borrowings, this word kept its original Latin gender (neuter); it is one of the few words ending in -us which is not masculine.

Derived termsEdit


FinnishEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin virus.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈʋirus/, [ˈʋirus̠]
  • IPA(key): /ˈʋiːrus/, [ˈʋiːrus̠] (proscribed)
  • Rhymes: -irus
  • Syllabification: vi‧rus

NounEdit

virus

  1. virus
  2. (computer security) virus

DeclensionEdit

Inflection of virus (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative virus virukset
genitive viruksen virusten
viruksien
partitive virusta viruksia
illative virukseen viruksiin
singular plural
nominative virus virukset
accusative nom. virus virukset
gen. viruksen
genitive viruksen virusten
viruksien
partitive virusta viruksia
inessive viruksessa viruksissa
elative viruksesta viruksista
illative virukseen viruksiin
adessive viruksella viruksilla
ablative virukselta viruksilta
allative virukselle viruksille
essive viruksena viruksina
translative virukseksi viruksiksi
instructive viruksin
abessive viruksetta viruksitta
comitative viruksineen
Possessive forms of virus (type vastaus)
possessor singular plural
1st person virukseni viruksemme
2nd person viruksesi viruksenne
3rd person viruksensa

AnagramsEdit


FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin virus.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus

Further readingEdit


GalicianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin virus (poison, slime, venom).

NounEdit

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus (pathogen)
  2. computer virus

IndonesianEdit

 
Indonesian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia id

EtymologyEdit

Learned borrowing from Latin virus, from rhotacism from Proto-Italic *weisos, from Proto-Indo-European *wisós (fluidity, slime, poison). Doublet of bisa.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [ˈvirʊs]
  • Hyphenation: vi‧rus

NounEdit

virus (plural, first-person possessive virusku, second-person possessive virusmu, third-person possessive virusnya)

  1. virus,
    1. (biology) a submicroscopic, non-cellular structure consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat, that requires a living host cell to replicate, and often causes disease in the host organism.
    2. (computing) a type of malware which can covertly transmit itself between computers via networks (especially the Internet) or removable storage such as disks, often causing damage to systems and data; also computer virus.

Further readingEdit


InterlinguaEdit

NounEdit

virus (plural viruses)

  1. virus

Related termsEdit


ItalianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin virus.

NounEdit

virus m

  1. (virology) virus

LadinoEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

virus m (Latin spelling)

  1. virus
    • 2018 February 7, Dora Niyego, “El Antisemitizmo De Oy”, in Şalom[2]:
      El antisemitizmo es un prejudizio, komo un virus.
      Antisemitism is a prejudice, like a virus.

LatinEdit

 
Latin Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia la

EtymologyEdit

Via rhotacism from Proto-Italic *weisos, from Proto-Indo-European *wisós (fluidity, slime, poison). Cognates include Sanskrit विष (viṣá), Ancient Greek ἰός (iós), from an older form ϝἰσός : wisós; Tocharian B wase, and Middle Irish . The neuter gender of this term despite its nominative singular ending in the masculine second-declension -us is a relic of this term's inheritance from a neuter s-stem.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

vīrus n sg (genitive vīrī); second declension

  1. A stinking, or rammish smell.
  2. The seed or nature in animals.
  3. A nasty taste.
  4. Poison, venom.
  5. Bitterness, sharpness.
  6. The juice of the purple-fish.
  7. A strong smell of spices or perfumes.[2]
  8. slimy liquid, slime
  9. (New Latin) virus (infectious organism)

DeclensionEdit

Second-declension noun (neuter, nominative/accusative/vocative in -us), singular only.

Case Singular
Nominative vīrus
Genitive vīrī
Dative vīrō
Accusative vīrus
Ablative vīrō
Vocative vīrus
  • There is also the heteroclitic genitive singular vīrūs.
  • When used in modern biology with the same meaning of English virus, a plural can be formed using the same suffixes of regular neuters of the 2nd. declension (i.e., vīra, vīrōrum, vīrīs, vīra, vīrīs, vīra).[3]

Derived termsEdit

SynonymsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • virus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • virus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • virus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[3], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to vent one's anger, spite on some one: virus acerbitatis suae effundere in aliquem (De Amic. 23. 87)
    • (ambiguous) many learned men; many scholars: multi viri docti, or multi et ii docti (not multi docti)
    • (ambiguous) to separate (of the woman): repudium remittere viro (Dig. 24. 3)
    • (ambiguous) statesmen: viri rerum civilium, rei publicae gerendae periti or viri in re publica prudentes
    • (ambiguous) men of rank and dignity: viri clari et honorati (De Sen. 7. 22)
  • virus in William Smith, editor (1854, 1857) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, volume 1 & 2, London: Walton and Maberly
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “vīrus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 682-683
  2. ^ Ainsworth's Latin Dictionary revised 1847 by A. Jamieson, [1]
  3. ^ William T. Stearn, Botanical Latin. History, Grammar, Syntax, Terminology and Vocabulary, ed. 3a (David & Charles, 1983): "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)."

AnagramsEdit


Northern SamiEdit

PronunciationEdit

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EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

NounEdit

virus

  1. virus

InflectionEdit

Odd, no gradation
Nominative virus
Genitive virusa
Singular Plural
Nominative virus virusat
Accusative virusa virusiid
Genitive virusa virusiid
Illative virusii virusiidda
Locative virusis virusiin
Comitative virusiin virusiiguin
Essive virusin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person virusan viruseamẹ viruseamẹt
2nd person virusat viruseattẹ viruseattẹt
3rd person virusis viruseaskkạ viruseasẹt

Norwegian BokmålEdit

 
Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin virus.

NounEdit

virus n (definite singular viruset, indefinite plural virus, definite plural virusa or virusene)

  1. a virus
  2. a computer virus (see datavirus)

ReferencesEdit


Norwegian NynorskEdit

 
Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nn

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin virus.

NounEdit

virus n (definite singular viruset, indefinite plural virus, definite plural virusa)

  1. a virus
  2. a computer virus (see datavirus)

ReferencesEdit


RomanianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from French virus, Latin virus.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈvirus/
  • Rhymes: -irus
  • Hyphenation: vi‧rus

NounEdit

virus n (plural virusuri)

  1. virus

DeclensionEdit


Serbo-CroatianEdit

NounEdit

vírus m (Cyrillic spelling ви́рус)

  1. (medicine) virus (DNA/RNA causing disease)
  2. (computing) computer virus

DeclensionEdit


SpanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin virus.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus
  2. computer virus

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit


SwedishEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin virus.

NounEdit

virus n

  1. virus

DeclensionEdit

Declension of virus 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative virus viruset virus virusen
Genitive virus virusets virus virusens