See also: Virus, vírus, vīrus, vīruss, virüs, and -virus

English edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Wikispecies has information on:

Wikispecies

 
The virions that carry the Marburg virus

Etymology edit

From Middle English virus, from Latin vīrus (poison, slime, venom), via rhotacism from Proto-Italic *weizos, from Proto-Indo-European *wisós (fluidity, slime, poison). First use in the computer context by David Gerrold in his 1972 book When HARLIE Was One.

Pronunciation edit

  • enPR: vīʹrəs, IPA(key): /ˈvaɪɹəs/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -aɪɹəs

Noun edit

virus (countable and uncountable, plural viruses or (rare) virusses or (rare) vira or (proscribed) viri or (proscribed) virii)

  1. A submicroscopic, non-cellular structure consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat, that requires a living host cell to replicate, and often causes disease in the host organism; such agents are often classed as nonliving infectious particles and less often as microorganisms.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:virus
    • 2001, Leslie Iversen, Drugs: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford, page 64:
      Viruses are the smallest and most simplified forms of life.
    • 2013 May-June, Katie L. Burke, “In the News”, in American Scientist, volume 101, number 3, page 193:
      Bats host many high-profile viruses that can infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome and Ebola.
  2. (uncountable) A quantity of such infectious agents
  3. (informal, metonymically) A disease caused by such an infectious agent; a viral illness.
    He's got a virus and had to stay home from school.
  4. (archaic) Venom, as produced by a poisonous animal etc.
    • 1890, Aluísio Azevedo, The Slum:
      Brazil, that inferno where every budding flower and every buzzing bluebottle fly bears a lascivious virus.
  5. (computing) A type of malware which can covertly transmit itself between computers via networks (especially the Internet) or removable storage such as disks, often causing damage to systems and data; also computer virus.
  6. (computing, proscribed) Any type of malware.
  7. (figurative) Any malicious or dangerous entity that spreads from one place or person to another.
    • 2011, Pat Mesiti, The $1 Million Reason to Change Your Mind:
      I am tired of the mind viruses that are crippling people living in the western world — especially in my own nation. Sadly, Australia is becoming known as a nation of whingers.

Hypernyms edit

Hyponyms edit

Computing
Virology

Derived terms edit

Virology

Descendants edit

Translations edit

Verb edit

virus (third-person singular simple present viruses, present participle virusing, simple past and past participle virused)

  1. (nonstandard, rare) To send or infect an electronic device with a computer virus.
    I'm just going to virus anyone who tries cheating on this game.

See also edit

Further reading edit

Asturian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈbiɾus/, [ˈbi.ɾus]

Noun edit

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus

Azerbaijani edit

Etymology edit

Ultimately from Latin vīrus.

Noun edit

virus (definite accusative virusu, plural viruslar)

  1. (medicine) virus
  2. (computing) computer virus

Declension edit

    Declension of virus
singular plural
nominative virus
viruslar
definite accusative virusu
virusları
dative virusa
viruslara
locative virusda
viruslarda
ablative virusdan
viruslardan
definite genitive virusun
virusların
    Possessive forms of virus
nominative
singular plural
mənim (my) virusum viruslarım
sənin (your) virusun virusların
onun (his/her/its) virusu virusları
bizim (our) virusumuz viruslarımız
sizin (your) virusunuz viruslarınız
onların (their) virusu or virusları virusları
accusative
singular plural
mənim (my) virusumu viruslarımı
sənin (your) virusunu viruslarını
onun (his/her/its) virusunu viruslarını
bizim (our) virusumuzu viruslarımızı
sizin (your) virusunuzu viruslarınızı
onların (their) virusunu or viruslarını viruslarını
dative
singular plural
mənim (my) virusuma viruslarıma
sənin (your) virusuna viruslarına
onun (his/her/its) virusuna viruslarına
bizim (our) virusumuza viruslarımıza
sizin (your) virusunuza viruslarınıza
onların (their) virusuna or viruslarına viruslarına
locative
singular plural
mənim (my) virusumda viruslarımda
sənin (your) virusunda viruslarında
onun (his/her/its) virusunda viruslarında
bizim (our) virusumuzda viruslarımızda
sizin (your) virusunuzda viruslarınızda
onların (their) virusunda or viruslarında viruslarında
ablative
singular plural
mənim (my) virusumdan viruslarımdan
sənin (your) virusundan viruslarından
onun (his/her/its) virusundan viruslarından
bizim (our) virusumuzdan viruslarımızdan
sizin (your) virusunuzdan viruslarınızdan
onların (their) virusundan or viruslarından viruslarından
genitive
singular plural
mənim (my) virusumun viruslarımın
sənin (your) virusunun viruslarının
onun (his/her/its) virusunun viruslarının
bizim (our) virusumuzun viruslarımızın
sizin (your) virusunuzun viruslarınızın
onların (their) virusunun or viruslarının viruslarının

Further reading edit

  • virus” in Obastan.com.

Catalan edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

virus m (invariable)

  1. virus

Related terms edit

Cornish edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (Revived Middle Cornish) IPA(key): [ˈviːrʏs]
  • (Revived Late Cornish) IPA(key): [ˈviːrɪz]

Noun edit

virus m (plural virusys)

  1. virus

References edit

  • Cornish-English Dictionary from Maga's Online Dictionary
  • Akademi Kernewek Gerlyver Kernewek (FSS) Cornish Dictionary (SWF), 2018, published 2018, page 190

Crimean Tatar edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Russian вирус (virus).

Noun edit

virus

  1. (virology) virus

Declension edit

References edit

Czech edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

virus m inan

  1. (virology) virus (a submicroscopic, non-cellular structure)
  2. (computing) virus (a type of computer malware)

Declension edit

Related terms edit

Further reading edit

  • virus in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • virus in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
  • virus in Akademický slovník cizích slov, 1995, at prirucka.ujc.cas.cz

Danish edit

Etymology edit

From Latin vīrus.

Noun edit

virus c or n (singular definite virussen or virusset, plural indefinite virus or virusser or vira, plural definite virussene or virusserne or viraene)

  1. virus

Dutch edit

 
Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nl

Etymology edit

From Latin vīrus. Coined in the virological sense by Martinus Beijerinck; the word had been previously used for pathogens, although not for viruses in the modern sense. The computing sense derives from English virus.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈviː.rʏs/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: vi‧rus

Noun edit

virus n (plural virussen, diminutive virusje n)

  1. (microbiology) virus
  2. (computer science) virus (computer virus)

Usage notes edit

Like most Latin borrowings, this word kept its original Latin gender (neuter); it is one of the few Dutch words ending in -us which is not masculine; cf. also corpus and opus. Marginally, use as a masculine noun is sometimes erroneously encountered, indeed based on the ending.

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

From Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈʋirus/, [ˈʋirus̠]
  • IPA(key): /ˈʋiːrus/, [ˈʋiːrus̠] (proscribed)
  • Rhymes: -irus
  • Syllabification(key): vi‧rus

Noun edit

virus

  1. virus
  2. (computer security) virus (computer virus)

Declension edit

Inflection of virus (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative virus virukset
genitive viruksen virusten
viruksien
partitive virusta viruksia
illative virukseen viruksiin
singular plural
nominative virus virukset
accusative nom. virus virukset
gen. viruksen
genitive viruksen virusten
viruksien
partitive virusta viruksia
inessive viruksessa viruksissa
elative viruksesta viruksista
illative virukseen viruksiin
adessive viruksella viruksilla
ablative virukselta viruksilta
allative virukselle viruksille
essive viruksena viruksina
translative virukseksi viruksiksi
abessive viruksetta viruksitta
instructive viruksin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of virus (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative virukseni virukseni
accusative nom. virukseni virukseni
gen. virukseni
genitive virukseni virusteni
viruksieni
partitive virustani viruksiani
inessive viruksessani viruksissani
elative viruksestani viruksistani
illative virukseeni viruksiini
adessive viruksellani viruksillani
ablative virukseltani viruksiltani
allative virukselleni viruksilleni
essive viruksenani viruksinani
translative viruksekseni viruksikseni
abessive viruksettani viruksittani
instructive
comitative viruksineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative viruksesi viruksesi
accusative nom. viruksesi viruksesi
gen. viruksesi
genitive viruksesi virustesi
viruksiesi
partitive virustasi viruksiasi
inessive viruksessasi viruksissasi
elative viruksestasi viruksistasi
illative virukseesi viruksiisi
adessive viruksellasi viruksillasi
ablative virukseltasi viruksiltasi
allative viruksellesi viruksillesi
essive viruksenasi viruksinasi
translative virukseksesi viruksiksesi
abessive viruksettasi viruksittasi
instructive
comitative viruksinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative viruksemme viruksemme
accusative nom. viruksemme viruksemme
gen. viruksemme
genitive viruksemme virustemme
viruksiemme
partitive virustamme viruksiamme
inessive viruksessamme viruksissamme
elative viruksestamme viruksistamme
illative virukseemme viruksiimme
adessive viruksellamme viruksillamme
ablative virukseltamme viruksiltamme
allative viruksellemme viruksillemme
essive viruksenamme viruksinamme
translative virukseksemme viruksiksemme
abessive viruksettamme viruksittamme
instructive
comitative viruksinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative viruksenne viruksenne
accusative nom. viruksenne viruksenne
gen. viruksenne
genitive viruksenne virustenne
viruksienne
partitive virustanne viruksianne
inessive viruksessanne viruksissanne
elative viruksestanne viruksistanne
illative virukseenne viruksiinne
adessive viruksellanne viruksillanne
ablative virukseltanne viruksiltanne
allative viruksellenne viruksillenne
essive viruksenanne viruksinanne
translative virukseksenne viruksiksenne
abessive viruksettanne viruksittanne
instructive
comitative viruksinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative viruksensa viruksensa
accusative nom. viruksensa viruksensa
gen. viruksensa
genitive viruksensa virustensa
viruksiensa
partitive virustaan
virustansa
viruksiaan
viruksiansa
inessive viruksessaan
viruksessansa
viruksissaan
viruksissansa
elative viruksestaan
viruksestansa
viruksistaan
viruksistansa
illative virukseensa viruksiinsa
adessive viruksellaan
viruksellansa
viruksillaan
viruksillansa
ablative virukseltaan
virukseltansa
viruksiltaan
viruksiltansa
allative virukselleen
viruksellensa
viruksilleen
viruksillensa
essive viruksenaan
viruksenansa
viruksinaan
viruksinansa
translative viruksekseen
virukseksensa
viruksikseen
viruksiksensa
abessive viruksettaan
viruksettansa
viruksittaan
viruksittansa
instructive
comitative viruksineen
viruksinensa

Further reading edit

Anagrams edit

French edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Galician edit

Etymology edit

From Latin vīrus (poison, slime, venom).

Noun edit

virus m (invariable)

  1. virus (pathogen)
  2. computer virus

Indonesian edit

 
Indonesian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia id

Etymology edit

From Dutch virus, from Latin vīrus, from rhotacism from Proto-Italic *weizos, from Proto-Indo-European *wisós (fluidity, slime, poison). Doublet of bisa.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈvirʊs]
  • Hyphenation: vi‧rus

Noun edit

virus (plural virus-virus, first-person possessive virusku, second-person possessive virusmu, third-person possessive virusnya)

  1. virus:
    1. (biology, virology) A submicroscopic, non-cellular structure consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat, that requires a living host cell to replicate, and often causes disease in the host organism; such agents are often classed as nonliving infectious particles and less often as microorganisms.
    2. (computing) computer virus: A type of malware which can covertly transmit itself between computers via networks (especially the Internet) or removable storage such as disks, often causing damage to systems and data.

Further reading edit

Interlingua edit

Noun edit

virus (plural viruses)

  1. virus

Related terms edit

Italian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈvi.rus/
  • Rhymes: -irus
  • Hyphenation: vì‧rus

Noun edit

virus m (invariable)

  1. (virology) virus

Further reading edit

  • virus in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Ladino edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

virus m (Latin spelling)

  1. virus
    • 2018 February 7, Dora Niyego, “El Antisemitizmo De Oy”, in Şalom[5]:
      El antisemitizmo es un prejudizio, komo un virus.
      Antisemitism is a prejudice, like a virus.

Latin edit

 
Latin Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia la

Etymology edit

Via rhotacism from Proto-Italic *weizos, from Proto-Indo-European *wisós (fluidity, slime, poison). Cognates include Sanskrit विष (viṣá), Ancient Greek ἰός (iós), Tocharian B wase, and Middle Irish . The neuter gender of this term despite its nominative singular ending in the masculine second-declension -us is possibly a relic of this term's inheritance from a neuter s-stem.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

vīrus n sg (genitive vīrī); second declension

  1. A stinking, or rammish smell.
  2. The seed or nature in animals.
  3. A nasty taste.
  4. Poison, venom.
  5. Bitterness, sharpness.
  6. A strong smell of spices or perfumes.[2]
  7. A slimy liquid, slime.
  8. (New Latin) A virus (infectious organism).

Declension edit

Second-declension noun (neuter, nominative/accusative/vocative in -us), singular only.

Case Singular
Nominative vīrus
Genitive vīrī
Dative vīrō
Accusative vīrus
Ablative vīrō
Vocative vīrus
  • There is also the heteroclitic genitive singular vīrūs.
  • When used in modern biology with the same meaning of English virus, a plural can be formed using the same suffixes of regular neuters of the 2nd declension (i.e., vīra, vīrōrum, vīrīs, vīra, vīrīs, vīra):[3]

Second-declension noun (neuter, nominative/accusative/vocative plural in -a).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative vīrus vīra
Genitive vīrī vīrōrum
Dative vīrō vīrīs
Accusative vīrus vīra
Ablative vīrō vīrīs
Vocative vīrus vīra

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  • "virus", in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • "virus". in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • virus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • "virus", in William Smith, editor (1854, 1857) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, volume 1 & 2, London: Walton and Maberly
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “vīrus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 682-683
  2. ^ Ainsworth's Latin Dictionary revised 1847 by A. Jamieson, [1]
  3. ^ William T. Stearn, Botanical Latin. History, Grammar, Syntax, Terminology and Vocabulary, ed. 3a (David & Charles, 1983): "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)."

Anagrams edit

Malay edit

Etymology edit

From English virus, from Latin vīrus, from rhotacism from Proto-Italic *weizos.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

virus (plural virus-virus, informal 1st possessive virusku, 2nd possessive virusmu, 3rd possessive virusnya)

  1. virus:
    1. (biology, virology) A submicroscopic, non-cellular structure consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat, that requires a living host cell to replicate, and often causes disease in the host organism; such agents are often classed as nonliving infectious particles and less often as microorganisms.

Northern Sami edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

  This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Noun edit

virus

  1. virus

Inflection edit

Odd, no gradation
Nominative virus
Genitive virusa
Singular Plural
Nominative virus virusat
Accusative virusa virusiid
Genitive virusa virusiid
Illative virusii virusiidda
Locative virusis virusiin
Comitative virusiin virusiiguin
Essive virusin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person virusan viruseamẹ viruseamẹt
2nd person virusat viruseattẹ viruseattẹt
3rd person virusis viruseaskkạ viruseasẹt

Norwegian Bokmål edit

 
Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

Etymology edit

From Latin vīrus.

Noun edit

virus n (definite singular viruset, indefinite plural virus, definite plural virusa or virusene)

  1. (biology, virology) virus
  2. (computing) virus (computer virus) (see datavirus)

References edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

 
Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nn

Etymology edit

From Latin virus.

Noun edit

virus n (definite singular viruset, indefinite plural virus, definite plural virusa)

  1. (biology, virology) virus
  2. (computing) virus (computer virus) (see datavirus)

References edit

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from French virus, Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈvirus/
  • Rhymes: -irus
  • Hyphenation: vi‧rus

Noun edit

virus n (plural virusuri)

  1. virus

Declension edit

Serbo-Croatian edit

Noun edit

vírus m (Cyrillic spelling ви́рус)

  1. (medicine) virus (DNA/RNA causing disease)
  2. (computing) computer virus

Declension edit

Spanish edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈbiɾus/ [ˈbi.ɾus]
  • Audio (Colombia):(file)
  • Rhymes: -iɾus
  • Syllabification: vi‧rus

Noun edit

virus m (plural virus)

  1. virus
  2. computer virus

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Swedish edit

Etymology edit

From Latin vīrus.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

virus n

  1. (biology, virology) virus
  2. (computing) computer virus
    Synonyms: datavirus, datorvirus

Declension edit

Declension of virus 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative virus viruset virus virusen
Genitive virus virusets virus virusens

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

See also edit

References edit

Tagalog edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Unadapted borrowing from English virus, from Latin vīrus. Doublet of bisa and birus.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈvajɾus/, [ˈvaɪ̯.ɾʊs]
  • IPA(key): /ˈbajɾus/, [ˈbaɪ̯.ɾʊs]
  • (nonstandard) IPA(key): /ˈviɾus/, [ˈvi.ɾʊs]
  • (nonstandard) IPA(key): /ˈbiɾus/, [ˈbi.ɾʊs]

Noun edit

virus (Baybayin spelling ᜊᜌ᜔ᜇᜓᜐ᜔)

  1. (biology, virology) virus
  2. computer virus

Further reading edit

  • virus”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018