Pictogram (象形) – originally two pieces of jade crossed over each other as used in ancient shamanistic practices.
- “shaman; witch”
- This word initially referred to spirit medium/shaman of either sex, but eventually female when contrasted with 覡 (OC *ɡeːɡ, “male shaman”). Various hypotheses exist regarding its etymology (Schuessler, 2007):
- Cognate with Tibetan འབའ་པོ ('ba' po, “magician, sorcerer”), འབའ་མོ ('ba' mo, “sorceress”).
- Cognate with 誣 (OC *ma, “to deceive”).
- Cognate with 舞 (OC *maʔ, “to dance”).
- Cognate with 母 (OC *mɯʔ, “female”).
- Victor Mair (1990) and Jao Tsung-I (1990) proposed that this is a loanword from Old Persian 𐎶𐎦𐎢𐏁 (maguš) (more at Wikipedia: Magus). (Mair, 1990; Mair, 2012).
- Thai หมอ (mɔ̌ɔ, “doctor”) < Proto-Tai *ʰmo:ᴬ (“shaman”) is generally assumed to be a Sino-Tibetan loan (Pittayaporn, 2014). More at Wu (shaman), Magi#In Chinese sources, magus.
- Clipping of 巫來由／巫来由 (wūláiyóu), a transcription of Malay Melayu.
- shaman; witch; sorcerer; wizard
- witch doctor
- (chiefly Malaysia, Singapore) Malay; Melayu; relating to ethnic Malays
- A surname.
(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)
- witch, sorcerer
This is the only kanji added to the jinmeiyō kanji list on 7 January 2015 by the Japanese government; previously classified as hyōgaiji.
/kamunaɡi/ → /kaɴnaɡi/
From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of 神 (kamu, “god, spirit”) + 和ぎ (nagi, “calming, calming down”), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, “continuative or stem form”) of verb 和ぐ (nagu, “to become calm, to become quiet”).
巫 • (kannagi)
- (archaic) a medium or shaman, usually female, who acts as a medium between humans and the spirits or gods, helping to communicate between the two and to calm any supernatural or spiritual upset
- Synonyms: 巫女 (miko), 神子 (kanko)
/kamunaɡi/ → /kaũnaɡi/ → /kaunaɡi/ → /kɔːnaɡi/ → /koːnaɡi/
Shift in pronunciation of the 神 (kamu) element, similar to the pattern seen in terms such as 神戸 (“Kōbe”).
巫 • (kōnagi) ←かうなぎ (kaunagi)?
- (archaic, possibly obsolete) a medium or shaman, usually female, who acts as a medium between humans and the spirits or gods, helping to communicate between the two and to calm any supernatural or spiritual upset
巫: Hán Việt readings: vu
- This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text