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TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 113 +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 戈火中田中 (IFLWL), four-corner 35206, composition(GHTJV) or ⿰(K))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 842, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24673
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1261, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2392, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+795E

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Small seal script
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l'iːns
*l̥ʰin, *hlin
*hlin
*hlin
*hlin
*hlin
*hlin, *hlins
*hlin
*hlin
*hlins
*hlin
*lins

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hlin): semantic  (god; deity) + phonetic  (OC *hlin, lightning).

Originally in the oracle bone script and in some bronze inscriptions. The ancients feared the unpredictable lightning and considered it to be divine or of divine origin. was added for specialization.

Pronunciation 1Edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂən³⁵/
Harbin /ʂən²⁴/
Tianjin /ʂən⁴⁵/
/sən⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂẽ⁴²/
Qingdao /ʃə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂən⁴²/
Xi'an /ʂẽ²⁴/
Xining /ʂə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂəŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʂə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʂɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /sən²¹³/
Chengdu /sən³¹/
Guiyang /sen²¹/
Kunming /ʂə̃³¹/
Nanjing /ʂən²⁴/
Hefei /ʂən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /səŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ʂəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /sə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zəŋ²³/
Suzhou /zən¹³/
Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
Wenzhou /zaŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /ɕiʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ɕian⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʂən¹³/
Xiangtan /ʂən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /sɨn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sən¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʃen¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐn²¹/
Nanning /sɐn²¹/
Hong Kong /sɐn²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sin³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /seiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tin³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (27)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʑiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʑin/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʑin/
Li
Rong
/d͡ʑiĕn/
Wang
Li
/d͡ʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʑʰi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shén
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shén
Middle
Chinese
‹ zyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə.li[n]/
English spirit

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11245
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hlin/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (religion) god; deity; spirit
  2. spirit; soul; mind
  3. expression; countenance; appearance
  4. supernatural; magic; psychic
  5. A surname​. Shen
Usage notesEdit

Different branches of Christianity use different terms for God:

  • and 上帝 (Shàngdì) are used by Protestants.
  • 天主 (Tiānzhǔ) is used by Roman Catholics.

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 神荼 (shēnshū).

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
かみ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
  on Japanese Wikipedia

/kami2/ *[kamɨ] → /kami/ [kami] invalid IPA characters (/2/*[]→//[])

From Old Japanese. Not related to (/kami1/ invalid IPA characters (1), up) or (/kami1/ invalid IPA characters (1), hair). Often appears in compounds as /kamu/ (modern /kaɴ/), indicating that /kami/ is a bound or fused form deriving from */kamu.i/. Note that this final i may be the Old Japanese emphatic nominative particle (i), likely cognate with Korean nominative particle (i). Such fusion has occurred in other Japanese terms, such as (me, eye, from ma + i) or (sake, saké, liquor, from saka + i).

Compare Ainu カムイ (kamuy, god), also present in compounds like カムイモシㇼ (kamuy mosir, land of the gods).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かみ, rōmaji kami)

  1. (Shinto, Japanese religion) a spirit or an essence present in all things, the main subject of worship of Shinto
    • 2004 October 1, “づきかみ [Kami of the Waning Moon]”, in かみがわものがたり [Tales of Kamigawa] (in Japanese), Wizards of the Coast:
      すぐさま (れい) () () (えい) (さい) (へん)された。そこに (なげ)きの (かみ) (ふたた) (あらわ)れ、 (かれ)らは (おそ)れをなした (とり) ()れの (ごと)くに () ()りになった。
      ―― (かみ) (がわ) (たい) (せん) ()
      Sugusama Reito no goei wa saihensareta. Soko ni nageki no kami ga futatabi araware, karera wa osore o nashita tori no mure no gotoku ni chirijiri ni natta.
      ――Kamigawa Taisenki
      For a moment, Reito’s defenders regrouped. Then wailing kami reappeared to send them scattering like flocks of frightened birds.
      ――Chronicles of the Great Battles of Kamigawa
    • 2005 June 3, “づきかみ [Kami of the Crescent Moon]”, in かみがわきゅうさい [Salvation of Kamigawa] (in Japanese), Wizards of the Coast:
       (しゅ) () (ちい)さな (かみ)よ。やつは (おれ)によく ()ている……。ちっぽけな (そん) (ざい)で、 () ()かれもしない。」
      —— (うめ) (ざわ) (とし) (ろう)
      “Shunaki chīsa na kami yo. Yatsu wa ore ni yoku niteiru……. Chippoke na sonzai de, mimukare mo shinai.”
      ——Umezawa Toshirō
      “That masterless little kami. He’s a lot like me. Disdainful of all things trivial.”
      ——Umezawa Toshirō
  2. (by extension) a deity; a god
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 85)
      Cami. カミ (神) 日本のゼンチヨ (gentios 異教徒)が尊崇する神(Cami).
    • 2004 April 7, Ohba, Tsugumi; Obata, Takeshi, “page.1 退たいくつ [page.1 Boredom]”, in DEATH NOTEデスノート [DEATH NOTE], volume 1 (fiction, in Japanese), Tokyo: Shueisha, ISBN 4-08-873621-4, pages 48–49:
      そして ( ぼく) ( しん) () (かい) (かみ)となる
      Soshite boku wa shinsekai no kami tonaru
      And then I will become the god of this new world
    • 2016 July 22, “エムラクールの [Hand of Emrakul]”, in 異界月 [Eldritch Moon] (in Japanese), Wizards of the Coast:
       (わたし) (うつく)しき (かみ) (しん)じていました。しかし、これが (かみ) (しん) (かお)です。」
      “Watashi wa utsukushiki kami o shinjitei mashita. Shikashi, kore ga kami no shin no kao desu.”
      “I believed in a beautiful god. But this is the true face of the divine.”
  3. thunder

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana かみ, rōmaji Kami)

  1. (Christianity) God
    • 1999 September 16, Katou, Motohiro, “ヤコブのたいだん [Jacob’s Stairway]”, in Q.E.D. しょうめいしゅうりょう [Q.E.D. Quod Erat Demonstrandum], volume 4 (fiction, in Japanese), Tokyo: Kodansha, ISBN 4-06-333696-4, page 184:
      ヤコブは (かみ) (こと) () ()け「 (やく) (そく) ()」を (さが)して (たび) ()った  () (ぶん) (たち)を  (はん) (えい)させる () ()を‥‥
      Yakobu wa Kami no kotoba o uke “Yakusoku no Chi” o sagashite tabidatta jibuntachi o han'ei saseru tochi o‥‥
      Jacob took God’s word and set out in search of the “Promised Land”, of themselves, of fertile soil‥‥
    • 2003 March 19, Hotta, Yumi; Obata, Takeshi, “だい129きょく もどってい! [Game 129: Come Back!]”, in ヒカルの碁 [Hikaru’s Go], volume 15 (fiction, in Japanese), 6th edition, Tokyo: Shueisha, ISBN 4-08-873215-4, pages 78–79:
      オレなんかいらねェ!もう ()ちたいって ()わねェよ!だから  (かみ)さま!お (ねが)いだ!はじめにもどして!アイツを ()った (いち) (ばん)はじめに () (かん)をもどして‼
      Ore nan ka ira nē! Mō uchitaitte iwa nē yo! Dakara Kami-sama! Onegai da! Hajime ni modoshite! Aitsu o atta ichiban hajime ni jikan o modoshite‼
      I don’t need anything! I won’t ask to play any more! So, God! I’m begging you! Return things back to the beginning! Turn time back to when I first met him, please‼
Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Cognate with (mi, honorific prefix, originally used to refer to gods and other high-status things).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji mi)

  1. a god
  2. a spirit
Alternative formsEdit
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(sin) (hangeul )

NounEdit

(sin) (hangeul )

  1. Hanja form? of , “god”.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(thần, thườn)

  1. Hán tự form of thần, “god