U+6B66, 武
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6B66

[U+6B65]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6B67]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 77, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 一心卜中一 (MPYLM), four-corner 13140, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 575, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16273
  • Dae Jaweon: page 965, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1439, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6B66

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (blade) + (foot; to walk; to stop) – army going on expedition. In the character , the component is above the component- the first stroke of the component in the character is the first stroke of .

The graphical origin of as “to stop violence” — the ultimate state of just warfare — is traditionally attributed to King Zhuang of Chu [597 B.C.E.]:

:「。」 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
:“。” [Classical Chinese, simp.]
From: Commentary of Zuo, circa 4th century BCE
Chǔ Zǐ yuē: “Fēi ěr suǒ zhī yě. Fú wén, zhǐ gē wéi .” [Pinyin]
Said Lord "Chǔ" (楚): “Not exactly as what you might have believed. The term itself, means: stopping ("止") the blades ("戈") thus martiality ("武").”

Linguistically, this was likely a misinterpretation, as was frequently used to mean “to walk” (), not “to stop”.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d-mak (war, army, soldier). Cognate with Tibetan དམག (dmag, army) and Burmese မက် (mak) (as in ရဲမက် (rai:mak, soldier) (STEDT, Schuessler (2007))

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /u²¹⁴/
Harbin /u²¹³/
Tianjin /u¹³/
Jinan /u⁵⁵/
Qingdao /vu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /u⁵³/
Xi'an /vu⁵³/
Xining /v̩⁵³/
Yinchuan /vu⁵³/
Lanzhou /vu⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /vu⁵¹/
Wuhan /u⁴²/
Chengdu /u⁵³/
Guiyang /u⁴²/
Kunming /u⁵³/
Nanjing /u²¹²/
Hefei /u²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /vu⁵³/
Pingyao /u⁵³/
Hohhot /vu⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /vu²³/
Suzhou /vu³¹/
Hangzhou /ʔu⁵³/
Wenzhou /vu³⁵/
Hui Shexian /u³⁵/
Tunxi /u³¹/
Xiang Changsha /u⁴¹/
Xiangtan /u⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /u²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /vu⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /vu³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mou²³/
Nanning /mu²⁴/
Hong Kong /mou¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bu⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /u³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /u²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /bu⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /vu²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/mioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/mioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/muə̆X/
Li
Rong
/mioX/
Wang
Li
/mĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
mou5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*m(r)aʔ/
English military

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13184
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*maʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. military (related to warfare, fighting)
    /   ―  dòng  ―  to use force (to fight, start a war, etc.)
  2. martial arts; wushu
      ―    ―  to compete in a martial arts
  3. valiant; brave; courageous
      ―  yǒng  ―  valiant; courageous
  4. soldier; warrior
  5. footstep; footprint
  6. Classifier for half steps.
  7. (obsolete) to inherit
  8. A surname​.
    /   ―  Zétiān  ―  Wu Zetian (the only legitimate female sovereign in the history of China)

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (bu)
  • Korean: (, mu)
  • Vietnamese: ()

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (mjuX, military).

The goon reading of mu, so likely the initial borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

AffixEdit

() (mu

  1. military, martial
Usage notesEdit

Only found in compounds. Not as common as the bu reading.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (mjuX, military).

The kan'on reading of bu, so likely a re-borrowing at a later stage of Middle Chinese, or from a dialectal variation in Middle Chinese.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

() (bu

  1. courage, ferocity, valor
  2. military power, force of arms
  3. the act of carrying out military force: a battle, a war
  4. the way of carrying out military force: strategy, tactics, martial arts
  5. a military person: an officer, a soldier
  6. (obsolete) a unit of length, equivalent to half of a (bu, six (shaku), roughly six feet or 1.8 meters), roughly equivalent to one yard or 90 centimeters
Derived termsEdit
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Ateji used in various names.

Proper nounEdit

(たけし) (Takeshi

  1. A male given name

(たける) (Takeru

  1. A male given name

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 굳셀 (gutsel mu))

  1. Hanja form? of (military nobility; soldier, warrior; weaponry, weapons).
  2. Hanja form? of (courage, honor).
  3. Hanja form? of (martial arts, wushu; to demonstrate military force: strategy, tactics, martial arts).

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: ,

  1. A surname.