See also: 硏究

ChineseEdit

grind fine; study; research after all; to investigate; to study carefully
trad. (研究)
simp. #(研究)
 
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PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ngiêng5 giu3 - Chaozhou;
  • ngiang5 giu3 - Shantou.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1 1/1
    Initial () (31) (28)
    Final () (85) (136)
    Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () IV III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋenH/ /kɨuH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋenH/ /kiuH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋɛnH/ /kiəuH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɛnH/ /kuwH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋenH/ /kiuH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋienH/ /kĭəuH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋienH/ /ki̯ə̯uH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yàn jiù
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jin6 gau3

    VerbEdit

    研究

    1. (intransitive, transitive) to research; to study
      進行研究 / 进行研究  ―  jìnxíng yánjiū  ―  to conduct research
      研究方向  ―  yánjiū fāngxiàng  ―  research direction
      研究方法  ―  yánjiū fāngfǎ  ―  research method
      研究成果  ―  yánjiū chéngguǒ  ―  research findings
      科學研究 / 科学研究  ―  kēxué yánjiū  ―  scientific research
      研究對象 / 研究对象  ―  yánjiū duìxiàng  ―  research subject
      研究開發 / 研究开发  ―  yánjiū kāifā  ―  to research and develop; to do R&D
    2. (transitive) to deliberate; to discuss; to investigate
      這個問題有待研究 [MSC, trad.]
      这个问题有待研究 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhège wèntí yǒudài yánjiū. [Pinyin]
      This problem requires discussion.

    SynonymsEdit

    • (to research):
    • (to deliberate):

    Related termsEdit

    NounEdit

    研究

    1. (countable, uncountable) research; study; investigation (Classifier: m)
      研究 / 研究  ―  zuò yī xiàng yánjiū  ―  to conduct a research
      可行性研究  ―  kěxíngxìng yánjiū  ―  feasibility study

    SynonymsEdit

    Derived termsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic (研究):

    See alsoEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Kanji in this term
    けん
    Grade: 3
    きゅう
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    硏究 (kyūjitai)

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese 研究 (ngen *kiuH?). Compare modern Hakka ngiên-kiu, Min Dong ngiĕng-géu, Min Nan gián-kiù.

    The original on'yomi for the first character was gen, more closely matching the Chinese origins. For reasons unknown, the reading shifted from gen to a kan'yō yomi of ken.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (けん)(きゅう) (kenkyū

    1. a piece of research, a study, investigation
      • 1928, 寺田寅彦, 雑感:
        間違(まちが)える(こと)なしには研究(けんきゅう)(すす)められない。
        Machigaeru koto nashi ni wa kenkyū wa susumerarenai.
        Research cannot advance without mistakes along the way.

    Derived termsEdit

    VerbEdit

    (けん)(きゅう)する (kenkyū surusuru (stem (けん)(きゅう) (kenkyū shi), past (けん)(きゅう)した (kenkyū shita))

    1. to research, to study
      • 1931, 宮本百合子, 五ヵ年計画とソヴェトの芸術:
        これらの作品(さくひん)研究(けんきゅう)された。
        Korera no sakuhin ga kenkyū sareta.
        These works have been studied.

    ConjugationEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, →ISBN.

    KoreanEdit

    Hanja in this term

    NounEdit

    研究 (yeongu) (hangeul 연구)

    1. Alternative form of 硏究 (research)

    VietnameseEdit

    Hán tự in this term

    VerbEdit

    研究

    1. Hán tự form of nghiên cứu (to research).