U+7814, 研
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7814

[U+7813]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7815]
See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 112 +4, 9 strokes, cangjie input 一口一廿 (MRMT), four-corner 11640, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

See alsoEdit

  • (Original forms of 研)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 828, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24080
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1243, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2418, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+7814

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kŋeː
*kŋeː
*kŋeː, *ŋ̥ʰeːn
羿 *ŋeːs
*ŋ̥ʰaːn
*ŋaːn, *ŋ̥ʰeːn
*ŋreːn, *tŋ̥ʰeːn
*ŋeːn
*kŋeːn
*kŋeːn, *ŋeːn, *ŋ̥ʰreːŋ, *ŋreːɡ
*kŋeːn, *ŋeːns
*kŋeːn, *ŋ̥ʰeːn
*kŋeːnʔ, *ŋeːn, *ŋeːns
*ŋ̥ʰeːn, *ŋ̥ʰeːns
*ŋ̥ʰeːn
*ŋɡeːn, *ŋeːns
*ŋeːn
*hŋeːn
*ɡeːŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋɡeːn, *ŋeːns): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kŋeːn).

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • jin4 - literary;
  • ngaan4 - vernacular (“to grind”).
Note:
  • ngiēng - vernacular;
  • ngiĕng - literary (used in 研究).
Note:
  • gián - literary;
  • géng/nguí/gán/ngái - vernacular.
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: ngiêng2 / ngiang2 / ngiêng5 / ngiang5 / ngoin2 / ngain2
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: ngiéng / ngiáng / ngiêng / ngiâng / ngóiⁿ / ngáiⁿ
    • IPA (key): /ŋieŋ⁵²/, /ŋiaŋ⁵²/, /ŋieŋ⁵⁵/, /ŋiaŋ⁵⁵/, /ŋõĩ⁵²/, /ŋãĩ⁵²/
Note:
  • =ngiêng2/ngiang2, ngiêng5/ngiang5 - literary;
  • ngoin2/ngain2 - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
Harbin /ian²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
Jinan /iã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
Xi'an /iã²⁴/
Xining /iã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
Wuhan /niɛn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ȵian⁵⁵/
Guiyang /nian⁵⁵/
Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ien²⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵi⁵³/
Suzhou /ȵiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ne³⁵/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ³³/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ³³/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ŋan⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /ŋien²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jin²¹/
Nanning /in²¹/
Hong Kong /jin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gian³⁵/
/giŋ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋieŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋaiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋiaŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋin²³/ ~究
/ŋai²¹³/ ~碎

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋenH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋenH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɛnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɛnH/
Li
Rong
/ŋenH/
Wang
Li
/ŋienH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋienH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ˤe[r]/
English grind; examine

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 6171 6176
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2 2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋɡeːn/ /*ŋeːns/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to grind; to rub; to sharpen
  2. to investigate; to study; to research

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit


  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
Harbin /ian²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
Jinan /iã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
Xi'an /iã²⁴/
Xining /iã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
Wuhan /niɛn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ȵian⁵⁵/
Guiyang /nian⁵⁵/
Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ien²⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵi⁵³/
Suzhou /ȵiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ne³⁵/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ³³/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ³³/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ŋan⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /ŋien²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jin²¹/
Nanning /in²¹/
Hong Kong /jin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gian³⁵/
/giŋ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋieŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋaiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋiaŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋin²³/ ~究
/ŋai²¹³/ ~碎

DefinitionsEdit

  1. inkstone (Archaic form of )

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit


  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
Harbin /ian²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
Jinan /iã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
Xi'an /iã²⁴/
Xining /iã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
Wuhan /niɛn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ȵian⁵⁵/
Guiyang /nian⁵⁵/
Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ien²⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵi⁵³/
Suzhou /ȵiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ne³⁵/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ³³/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ³³/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ŋan⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /ŋien²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jin²¹/
Nanning /in²¹/
Hong Kong /jin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gian³⁵/
/giŋ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋieŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋaiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋiaŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋin²³/ ~究
/ŋai²¹³/ ~碎

DefinitionsEdit

  1. whetstone (See also )

JapaneseEdit

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(yeon) (hangeul , revised yeon, McCune-Reischauer yŏn, Yale yen)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nghiên, tên, nghiền, nghiện)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999