U+8328, 茨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8328

[U+8327]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8329]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 140, +6, 10 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 9 strokes in mainland China and Japanese, cangjie input 廿戈一人 (TIMO) or 廿一一人 (TMMO), four-corner 44182, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1028, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30896
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1487, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3208, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+8328

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (15)
Final () (15)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ziɪ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡zi/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zjɪ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡zi/
Li
Rong
/d͡zi/
Wang
Li
/d͡zi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1800
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zli/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. caltrop, puncture vine, Tribulus terrestris
CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. (Teochew) Alternative form of (“potato, sweet potato and yam”).

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. briar, bramble

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
(ibara, ubara, umara, mubara): a thorny shrub.
Kanji in this term
いばら
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

/ubara//ibara/

Sound shift from Old Japanese ubara (see below).[1] Now the modern version of this term.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(いばら) (ibara

  1. a thorny bush or shrub: a briar, a bramble
    • 1999 May 27, “()(かい)のイバラ [Thorns of the Demon World]”, in Vol.3, Konami:
      ()(かい)(せい)(そく)するイバラ()()(とお)ろうとする(もの)にからみつく。
      Makai ni seisoku suru ibara. Muri ni tōrō to suru mono ni karamitsuku.
      A thorny plant that grows in the demon world. It constricts any unwary passerby.
  2. (regional, chiefly Kansai) a thorn on a plant
  3. general name for wild roses
  4. (figurative) suffering, hardship, distress
  5. (architecture, construction) the point where two curved lines come together, such as the tip of a cusped gable
  6. (historical, slang) during the Edo period, a downmarket prostitute
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
うばら
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1][2] Used in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[3]

Appears alongside the umara form (see below), suggesting possible prenasalization, perhaps realized as */umbara/.

Superseded by ibara above.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(うばら) (ubara

  1. (archaic) a thorny bush or shrub: a briar, a bramble
  2. (archaic) general name for wild roses
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
うまら
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1][2] Used in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[4]

Appears alongside the ubara form (see above), suggesting possible prenasalization, perhaps realized as */umbara/.

Superseded by ibara above.

NounEdit

(うまら) (umara

  1. (archaic) a thorny bush or shrub: a briar, a bramble
    • 794, Shin'yaku Kegonkyō Ongi Shiki (page 47)
      翹棘 翹尅 音交 訓久波多川 棘 音里 訓宇末良
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  2. (archaic) general name for wild roses

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
むばら
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Appears in the Heian period,[1] apparently as a shift from ubara. Used in The Tales of Ise dating to the early 900s CE.[2]

Considering the earlier free alternation between ubara and umara, suggesting a possible prenasalized pronunciation such as */umbara/, this mubara may have arisen from an alternative spelling to clarify nasalization. Old Japanese orthography had no unambiguous means of specifying the nasal coda consonant (n), using (mu) instead. In fact, the modern kana (n) developed from a hentaigana form of (mu).

Superseded by ibara above.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(むばら) (mubara

  1. (archaic) a thorny bush or shrub: a briar, a bramble
  2. (archaic) general name for wild roses

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 16, poem 3832), text here
  4. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4352), text here

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ja) (hangeul , revised ja, McCune–Reischauer cha, Yale ca)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(tỳ, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.