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See also: 𬼂
Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai N.png
U+3093, ん



Stroke order


  • The realization of this phoneme depends on its phonetic context, as follows:
  • When speakers wish to convey the consonant very clearly, for example in classical singing or when spelling things out to someone who can't hear the speaker well, [m] may be used in place of [ɴ], and potentially even in all other positions.

Etymology 1Edit

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style. and were originally both used for both the n and mu sounds; was designated as n in the script reform.


(romaji n)

  1. The hiragana syllable (n). Its equivalent in katakana is (n). It is the forty-eighth syllable in the gojūon order.
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

/nu//n/, /ŋ/

An abbreviation of the negative ending (nu).


(rōmaji -n)

  1. (jodōshi) (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of a verb): negative form of verbs
    • 北大路魯山人, 『味覚馬鹿』
      Aru to ieba aru ga, shikashi, hontō no koto wa wakaran.
      There is, to be sure, but, I don't know the facts.
Usage notesEdit
  • The negative usage of (-n) is a colloquial form of (nu), and this is mainly used in western Japanese dialects.
    • Since ない is adopted as a standard form for the negative suffix in modern Japanese, gives a dialectal or very casual impression compared to ない today.
    • On the other hand, is common in fictional dialogue attributed to archaic or pompous characters.


Etymology 3Edit

/mu//n/, /ŋ/

An abbreviation of the intentional, volitional, and suppositional ending (mu).


(rōmaji -n)

  1. (jodōshi, non-productive, archaic) (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of a verb): volitional form of verbs
    いざ ()
    iza yukan
    Let's go.
     (かみ) () () ()があらことを
    kami no go kago ga aran koto o
    God bless you.
    • 北大路魯山人, 『味覚馬鹿』
       (こう) (きゅう) (しょっ) () () ()をつくらとするものは、 () (しょく) (つう)ずべし。[2]
      Kōkyū shokki, biki o tsukuran to suru mono wa, bishoku ni tsūzu beshi.
      He who tries to make high-class tableware and beautyware, must be familiar with epicurism.
Usage notesEdit
  • The volitional usage of (-n) is a colloquial form of (mu), and this is usually used to impart a literary style in modern Japanese.
  • In modern Japanese, this is more commonly realized as the or -yō volitional verb ending, derived by abbreviation of the /m/:
    • For type 1 or godan verbs: /-amu//-au//-ɔː//-oː/
    • For type 2 or 3 ichidan verbs with stems ending in /-i/: /-Cimu/ → /-Ciu/ → /-Cʲoː/ → /-Cijoː/
    • For type 2 or 3 ichidan verbs with stems ending in /-e/: /-Cemu/ → /-Ceu/ → /-Cʲoː/ → /-Cejoː/
      • /C/ above indicates the last consonant in the verb stem, such as the /m/ in /mi/, the verb stem for 見る (miru, to see), or the /b/ in /tabe/, the verb stem for 食べる (taberu, to eat).

Etymology 4Edit

/no//n/, /ŋ/.

An abbreviation of (no).


(rōmaji n)

  1. Synonym of (no)
    あの、 ()きたいことがあるだけど。
    Ano, kikitai koto ga aru n da kedo.
    Excuse me, I have a question I would like to ask.
     (おれ) () ()ない?
    Ore n chi ni konai?
    Wanna come to my place?
    • 甲賀三郎, 『蜘蛛』
      「とたてぐもの一種 (いっしゅ)だよ。潮見君 (しおみくん)毒蜘蛛 (どくぐも)間違 (まちが)えただよ」[3]
      “Totategumo no isshu na n da yo. Shiomi-kun wa dokugumo to machigaeta n da yo”
      "It's a type of trapdoor spider. You've mistaken it for a venomous spider."

Etymology 5Edit

/r-//r//n/, /ŋ/.


(rōmaji -n)

  1. Contraction of (ra).
     (いえ) (かえ)なきゃ。
    Ie ni kaennakya.
    I must go home.
  2. Contraction of (ru).
    Nani shiten no?
    What'cha doin'?
    Stop playing around!
    ki ni sunna
    Don't mind.
  3. Contraction of (re).
    I can't believe it.
     (なみだ) ()ない
    namida ga tomannai
    the tears won't stop
    and so