See also: 𬼂, h, ƕ, and խ

U+3093, ん



Stroke order


  • The realization of this phoneme depends on its phonetic context, as follows:
  • When speakers wish to convey the consonant very clearly, for example in classical singing or when spelling things out to someone who can't hear the speaker well, [m] may be used in place of [ɴ], and potentially even in all other positions.

Etymology 1Edit

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style. and were originally both used for both the n and mu sounds; was designated as n in the script reform.


(romaji n)

  1. The hiragana syllable (n). Its equivalent in katakana is (n). It is the forty-eighth syllable in the gojūon order.
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

/nu//n/, /ŋ/

An abbreviation of the negative ending (nu).



  1. (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of a verb): negative form of verbs
    I don't know.
    yurusen zo
    This is unforgivable!
    • 北大路魯山人, 『味覚馬鹿』
      Aru to ieba aru ga, shikashi, hontō no koto wa wakaran.
      There is, to be sure, but, I don't know the facts.
Usage notesEdit
  • The negative usage of (-n) is a colloquial form of (nu), and this is mainly used in western Japanese dialects.
    • Since ない is adopted as a standard form for the negative suffix in modern Japanese, gives a dialectal or very casual impression compared to ない today except that it is standard when forming the negative of ます (-masu), ません (-masen).
    • On the other hand, is common in fictional dialogue attributed to archaic or pompous characters.
  • This word is morphologically an inflectional suffix. It is classified as 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb) in traditional Japanese grammar.
See alsoEdit

Etymology 3Edit

/mu//n/, /ŋ/

An abbreviation of the intentional, volitional, and suppositional ending (mu).

Alternative formsEdit

  • (reflex in modern language) (-u)



  1. (non-productive, archaic) (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of a verb): volitional form of verbs
    iza yukan
    Let's go.
    kami no go-kago ga aran koto o
    God bless you.
    (literally, “May God's protection be with you.”)
    • 北大路魯山人, 『味覚馬鹿』
      Kōkyū shokki, biki o tsukuran to suru mono wa, bishoku ni tsūzu beshi.
      He who tries to make high-class tableware and beautyware, must be familiar with epicurism.
    • 2004; Murakoshi, Suguru; trans. Blaustein, Jeremy, et al., quoting note on door, Silent Hill 4: The Room, Tokyo: Konami, PlayStation 2; Xbox; PC, level/area: One Truth room:
      汝、最深部へ行くには 一つの真実を倒せ
      nanji, saishinbu e iku ni wa / hitotsu no shinjitsu o taose
      sa sureba kono tobira hirakaren
      To reach the deepest part, you must / defeat the One Truth.
      Do so and this door will open.
      (literally, “Thou, in going to the deepest part, / defeat the One Truth
      If you do thusly this door would be opened
Usage notesEdit
  • The volitional usage of (-n) is a colloquial form of (mu), and this is usually used to impart a literary style in modern Japanese.
  • This is ambiguous with the preceding etymology as both attached to the irrealis.
  • In modern Japanese, this is more commonly realized as the (-u > -ō) or よう (-yō) volitional verb ending. See the etymology of suffix よう (-yō) for more.
  • This word is morphologically an inflectional suffix. It is classified as 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb) in traditional Japanese grammar.

Etymology 4Edit

/no//n/, /ŋ/

Regular abbreviation of the possessive or nominalizing particle (no). The result is considered informal.



  1. contraction of (no)
    Ore n chi ni konai?
    Wanna come to my place?
    Ano, kikitai koto ga aru n da kedo.
    Excuse me, I have a question that I would like to ask.
    • 甲賀三郎, 『蜘蛛』
      “Totategumo no isshu na n da yo. Shiomi-kun wa dokugumo to machigaeta n da yo”
      "It's a type of trapdoor spider. You've mistaken it for a venomous spider."

Etymology 5Edit

/r-//r//n/, /ŋ/

Regular abbreviation of various morae preceding another mora starting with a nasalized consonant, such as /n/ or /d/. The result is considered informal.

Combining formEdit

  1. contraction of (ra)
    (いえ)(かえ)なきゃ。 → (いえ)(かえ)なきゃ。
    Ie ni kaeranakya. → ie ni kaennakya.
    I must go home.
    (なみだ)()ない → (なみだ)()ない
    namida ga tomaranai → namida ga tomannai
    the tears won't stop
  2. contraction of (ru)
    (なに)していの? → (なに)しての? → (なに)しての?
    Nani shite iru no? → nani shiteru no? → nani shiten no?
    What are you doing? → What ya doing? → What'cha doin'?
    Fuzakeru na! → fuzaken na!
    Stop playing around!
    ()にすな → ()にす
    ki ni suru na → ki ni sun na
    Don't mind.
  3. contraction of (re)
    (しん)じらない。 → (しん)じらない。
    Shinjirarenai. → shinjirannai.
    I can't believe it.
    sore de → son de
    and so

Etymology 6Edit

Possibly a reduced form of ちゃん.



  1. (women's speech) added to female names or parts of them to express affection
    (しおり) → しおりん, 一美(かずみ) → ずみん, (あかね) → ねん
    Shiori → Shiorin, Kazumi → Zumin, Akane → Nen
    Shiori → Shiorin, Kazumi → Zumin, Akane → Nen (nicknames)



From Proto-Ryukyuan *ni, from Proto-Japonic *ni. Cognate with Japanese (ni).


IPA(key): /n/



  1. (locative marker) in; to; for; at