Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kʷis

(Redirected from Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/kʷis)
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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

EtymologyEdit

A PIE interrogative-indefinite paradigm built from the stems *kʷi- and *kʷe- (parallel to anaphoric i-, e-), the former on nom. and acc. cases of all genders, the latter elsewhere, with no distinction of feminine forms, mostly "human" - "non-human". A stem *kʷo-, o-stem adjective, with its corresponding feminine *kʷeh₂-, was originally separate, but in most languages there was some conflation with the other two, as it is from this function that the relative pronoun evolves.

PronounEdit

*kʷis

  1. who, what (interrogative)
  2. who, which, that (relative)

DeclensionEdit

Pronominal declension Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative *kʷis *kʷis *kʷid *kʷeyes *kʷeyes *kʷih₂
Accusative *kʷim *kʷim *kʷid *kʷims *kʷims *kʷih₂
Dative *kʷesmey *kʷesmey *kʷesmey *kʷeybʰ- *kʷeybʰ- *kʷeybʰ-
Genitive *kʷesyo *kʷesyo *kʷesyo *kʷeysom *kʷeysom *kʷeysom
Locative *kʷesmi *kʷesmi *kʷesmi *kʷeysu *kʷeysu *kʷeysu

DeterminerEdit

*kʷos

  1. which, what

DeclensionEdit

Adjectival declension Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative *kʷos *kʷeh₂ *kʷod *kʷoy *kʷeh₂(e)s *kʷeh₂
Accusative *kʷom *kʷeh₂m *kʷod *kʷoms *kʷeh₂ms *kʷeh₂
Dative *kʷosmey *kʷosyeh₂ey *kʷosmey *kʷoybʰ- *kʷeh₂bʰ- *kʷoybʰ-
Genitive *kʷosyo *kʷosyeh₂s *kʷosyo *kʷoysoHom *kʷeh₂soHom *kʷoysoHom

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

The following lists the descendants of both *kʷis and kʷos, as they were usually confused and merged together to various degrees.

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *kʷis not found


ReferencesEdit

  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press
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