Translingual edit

Symbol edit

sa

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Sanskrit.

Abau edit

Noun edit

sa

  1. woman

References edit

  • transnewguinea.org, citing D. C. Laycock, Languages of the Lumi Subdistrict (West Sepik District), New Guinea (1968), Oceanic Linguistics, 7 (1): 36-66

Acehnese edit

Acehnese cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa
    Ordinal : phôn

Etymology edit

From Proto-Chamic *sa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Ainu edit

Noun edit

sa (Kana spelling )

  1. elder sister
    Synonym: nanna

References edit

  • John Batchelor (1905) An Ainu-English-Japanese dictionary (including a grammar of the Ainu language)[3], Tokyo; London: Methodist Publishing House; Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner Co., page 385
  • Vovin, Alexander V. (2016), “On the Linguistic Prehistory of Hokkaidō”, in Gruzdeva Ekaterina; Janhunen Juha, editors, Crosslinguistics and Linguistic Crossings in Northeast Asia. Papers on the Languages of Sakhalin and Adjacent Regions (Studia Orientalia; 117), Helsinki, pages 29–38

Albanian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Albanian *si-a, a combination of two pronominal members, Proto-Indo-European *kʷih₂ and *h₂ew-/*h₂en-. Alternatively from Proto-Albanian *tšja[1] or, as per Meyer, from Greek σαν (san, when, whenever).[2]

Pronoun edit

sa

  1. how much

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998), “sa”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden; Boston; Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 392
  2. ^ Meyer, G. (1891), “sa”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch der albanesischen Sprache [Etymological Dictionary of the Albanian Language] (in German), Strasbourg: Karl J. Trübner, →DOI, page 375

Ama edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

sa

  1. rain

Atong (India) edit

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

sa (Bengali script সা)

  1. one

Synonyms edit

References edit

Bahnar edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Bahnaric *caː, from Proto-Mon-Khmer *caʔ (to eat); cognate with Halang cha, Koho saa, Semai ca, Pacoh cha, Khmer ស៊ី (si) and Mon (cɛˀ).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. to eat

Balinese edit

Romanization edit

sa

  1. Romanization of

Banjarese edit

Banjarese cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa

Etymology edit

Shortened form of asa, from Proto-Malayic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Derived terms edit

Catalan edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Catalan sa~san, from Latin sānus, from Proto-Indo-European *swā-n- (healthy; whole; active; vigorous).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

sa (feminine sana, masculine plural sans, feminine plural sanes)

  1. healthy
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Latin ipsa.

Article edit

sa f

  1. (Balearics) nominative feminine singular of es

References edit

Chipewyan edit

Etymology edit

Compare South Slavey sa

Noun edit

sa

  1. sun
  2. watch

Drung edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s/p-wa.

Noun edit

sa

  1. tooth

References edit

Ross Perlin (2019) A Grammar of Trung[4], Santa Barbara: University of California

Duriankere edit

Noun edit

sa

  1. water

Further reading edit

Duun edit

Noun edit

sa

  1. fire

Further reading edit

Eastern Cham edit

Eastern Cham cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Chamic *sa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Estonian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • Sa (optional capitalization)

Etymology edit

Short form of sina

Pronoun edit

sa (genitive su, partitive sind, long form sina)

  1. you, thou (in unstressed positions)
    Mis sa teed seal?What are you doing there?

Declension edit

Declension of sa
2nd person singular plural
long short long short
nominative sina sa teie te
genitive sinu su teie te
partitive sind teid
illative sinusse susse teisse
inessive sinus sus teis
elative sinust sust teist
allative sinule sulle teile
adessive sinul sul teil
ablative sinult sult teilt
translative sinuks teieks teiks
terminative sinuni teieni
essive sinuna teiena
abessive sinuta teieta
comitative sinuga suga teiega

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • sa”, in [EKSS] Eesti keele seletav sõnaraamat [Descriptive Dictionary of the Estonian Language] (online version, in Estonian), Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus (Estonian Language Foundation), 2009
  • sa”, in [ÕS] Eesti õigekeelsussõnaraamat ÕS 2018 [Estonian Spelling Dictionary] (online version, in Estonian), Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus (Estonian Language Foundation), 2018
  • sa in Sõnaveeb (Eesti Keele Instituut)

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

See sinä.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈsɑ/, [ˈs̠ɑ̝]
  • Rhymes:
  • Syllabification(key): sa

Pronoun edit

sa

  1. (personal, archaic, poetic) you (singular; in archaic English: thou).

Synonyms edit

Further reading edit

Anagrams edit

French edit

Etymology edit

From Old French sa, from Latin sua feminine form of suus.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /sa/
  • (file)

Determiner edit

sa f sg

  1. (possessive) his, her, its, their, one's
    Emma est allée chez sa sœur.
    Emma went to her sister's house.
    Pierre a perdu sa carte d’identité.
    Pierre has lost his identity card.
    Sa voiture est blanche.
    Their car is white.

Related terms edit

Possessee
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine
Possessor Singular First person mon1 ma mes
Second person ton1 ta tes
Third person son1 sa ses
Plural First person notre nos
Second person votre2 vos2
Third person leur leurs
1 Also used before feminine adjectives and nouns beginning with a vowel or mute h.
2 Also used as the polite singular form.

Further reading edit

Anagrams edit

Futuna-Aniwa edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Polynesian *saqa.

Adjective edit

sa

  1. bad
  2. ugly

Galician edit

Etymology edit

Either from Proto-Germanic *saliz (house, hall),[1] or from Proto-Germanic *sēaną (to sow).[2]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

sa f (plural sas)

  1. generation, litter
  2. sowing season

References edit

  • sa” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
  1. ^ Joan Coromines; José A. Pascual (1983–1991), “sala”, in Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico (in Spanish), Madrid: Gredos
  2. ^ Piel, J. M. (1973), "Betrachtungen zu hisp.-got. *sala, gal.-pg. Sáa, Sá", in Studia Iberica. Festschrift für Hans Flache. München: Francke Verlag. page 463.

Garo edit

Garo cardinal numbers
1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tjak ~ g-t(j)ik. Cognate with Tibetan གཅིག (gcig), Burmese တစ် (tac).

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Gothic edit

Romanization edit

sa

  1. Romanization of 𐍃𐌰

Guaraní edit

Numeral edit

sa

  1. hundred

Hadza edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. to rain

Noun edit

sa

  1. the form of sako or its inflections after a determiner

Haitian Creole edit

Etymology edit

From French ça.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. can, to be able to

Determiner edit

sa

  1. this
  2. these
    • 2019 March 19, “Rankont ann Itali ant Anvwaye Espesyal Etazini ak Larisi sou Kriz Venezuela a”, in Lavwadlamerik[6]:
      Dapre Misey Guaido, 2 peyi sa yo ap defann sèlman enterè biznis yo ak Venezuela.
      According to Mr. Guaido, these two countries are only defending their business interests in Venezuela.
  3. that
  4. those

Pronoun edit

sa

  1. (demonstrative) this
  2. (demonstrative) these
  3. (demonstrative) that
  4. (demonstrative) those
  5. (interrogative) what
  6. (relative) what

Derived terms edit

Haroi edit

Haroi cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa

Etymology edit

From Proto-Chamic *sa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Hausa edit

Etymology edit

Generally thought to be from Proto-Chadic (compare Proto-Central Chadic *ɬa, whence Mbuko slā, Uldeme slà, Bana slá, Muyang ɬà, Moloko ɬa, Zulgo-Gemzek sla, Podoko sla, Daba zlà, Lagwan nsla), but Newman dissents and considers it a possible borrowing.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

 m (feminine sānìyā, plural shānū, possessed form sân)

  1. bull, ox, cattle

Higaonon edit

Preposition edit

sa

  1. of

Iban edit

Affix edit

sa

  1. short form for satu, often pronounced as se-.
  2. combine with a verb in nasal form e.g. se +‎ kayoh (kayoh means "paddle") to form a noun sengayoh (a paddle).
  3. combine with a verb in nasal form and a prefix pe- e.g. sa +‎ pe +‎ san (san means "a load") to form a noun sapenyan (as much as one can carry) and sa +‎ pe +‎ temu (temu means "opinion") to form sapenemu (as much as one knows).

References edit

  • Richards, Anthony. An Iban-English Dictionary, Volume 1 Clarendon Press. 1981.

Ido edit

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

sa

  1. (archaic) Alternative form of sua.
    • 1909-1910, Progreso – duesma yaro, page 40:
      Segun sa opiniono la max (maxim) importanta neceso por I.L. esas la max granda perfekteso, e ne la amaso di adheranti, [...]
      According to his opionion the most important necessity for an I.L. is the perfection, and not the amount of adherents, [...]

Igbo edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (inherent tone): IPA(key): /sá/

Verb edit

  1. to wash, to scrub.
    Ana m asa efere.
    I am washing plates.

Indonesian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronoun edit

sa

  1. (Papua) Synonym of saya

Etymology 2 edit

Malay cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa
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Shortened form of esa, from Malay se, from Proto-Malayic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Irish edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Irish (i)sind, (i)sin, from Old Irish isin(d/t) (in the m or f or n sg dative), isin (into the m or f sg accusative), isa (into the n sg accusative), from Proto-Celtic *in sindū/sindai (in the m sg/f sg dative), *in sindom/sindam (into the m sg/f sg accusative).

Pronunciation edit

Contraction edit

sa

  1. Contraction of i + an.
    Tá an fear sa bhád.The man is in the boat
    Tá na páistí ag súgradh sa tsráid.The children are playing in the street.
    Táimid inár suí sa seomra (or) tseomra.We are sitting in the room.

Usage notes edit

This contraction is obligatory, i.e. *i an never appears uncontracted. Used before consonant sounds only; otherwise, san is used. Triggers:

  • lenition of b, c, f, g, m, p and changes initial s to ts in Ulster varieties,
  • lenition of b, c, g, m, p, changes initial s to ts, and triggers eclipsis of f in Munster varieties,
  • eclipsis and changes initial s to ts in feminine nouns while not affecting s in masculine nouns in Connacht varieties,
  • in An Caighdeán Oifigiúil causes lenition of b, c, f, g, m, p and changes initial s to ts in feminine nouns (An Córas Lárnach) or all nouns (Córas an tSéimhithe).

Often understood to be a contraction of ins an, but the forms san, sa were in common use by the 12th century and accepted in Classical Gaelic poetry while ins is a later innovation with the -n- reintroduced by analogy.

Related terms edit

References edit

  • Osborn Bergin (1916), “Irish Grammatical Tracts (Introductory)”, in Ériu, volume 8, Supplement, Royal Irish Academy, →DOI, →JSTOR, §67, page 17
  • McKenna, Lambert, editor (1944) Bardic Syntactical Tracts, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, page 113: “Before pl. art. i n- gives is na, ’sna; in such cases a h- gives as na. (…) Before sg. art. i n- is isin, san (often sa before consonants).”
  • G. Toner, M. Ní Mhaonaigh, S. Arbuthnot, D. Wodtko, M.-L. Theuerkauf, editors (2019), “i”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language
  • Gramadach na Gaeilge: An Caighdeán Oifigiúil[7], Seirbhís Thithe an Oireachtais, 2017, pages 8–10, 15–18

Further reading edit

  • Ó Dónaill, Niall (1977), “sa”, in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, Dublin: An Gúm, →ISBN
  • Entries containing “sa” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “sa” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Italian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • (misspelling)

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. third-person singular present indicative of sapere
    Giovanni sa dov'è Laura.Giovanni knows where Laura is.

References edit

Japanese edit

Romanization edit

sa

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Jarai edit

Jarai cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa

Etymology edit

From Proto-Chamic *sa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Kabyle edit

Kabyle cardinal numbers
 <  6 7 8  > 
    Cardinal : sa
    Arabic loanword : sebɛa

Etymology edit

From Proto-Berber.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

sa (feminine sat)

  1. seven
    Synonym: sebɛa

Kamakan edit

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

sa

  1. (Kotoxo) water

References edit

  • Chestmir Loukotka, La família lingüística Kamakan del Brasil
  • Márcio Silva Martins Andérbio, Revisão da família lingüística Kamakã proposta por Chestmir Loukotka (thesis, Université de Brasilia, 2007 page 52)

Lhao Vo edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-hjwəj-t (water; liquid; body fluid). Cognate with Lashi suid" and Burmese သွေး (swe:).

Noun edit

sa

  1. blood

References edit

  • Dr. Ola Hanson, "A Dictionary of the Kachin Language" (1906).

Ligurian edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. third-person singular present indicative of savéi

Livonian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

A shorter form of sinā.

Pronoun edit

sa

  1. you; second person pronoun, referring to the addressee

Declension edit

See also edit

References edit

Renāte Blumberga, Tapio Mäkeläinen, Karl Pajusalu (2013), Lībieši: vēsture, valoda un kultūra, Rīga: Līvõ Kultūr sidām, →ISBN

Louisiana Creole edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from French sera (will be) or similar (e.g., seras), an inflection of French être (to be).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. (auxiliary, copulative) will be

Related terms edit

Lower Sorbian edit

Preposition edit

sa

  1. Obsolete spelling of za

Macanese edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Reduced form of sua. Semantically derived from Cantonese (ge3, possessive marker).

Particle edit

sa

  1. particle appended after pronouns to denote ownership: -'s
    iou-sa filomy child
    êle-sahis; her; their (sg.)
    ilôtro-sa casatheir (pl.) house
    uví mai-sa ladínhato listen to mother's scolding

Usage notes edit

  • According to native speakers, sa is more commonly used than sua.
  • The particle is not inflected for gender.
  • Almost always spelt connected using a hyphen in the vast majority of writings, but not mandatory.

Related terms edit

See also edit

Macanese personal pronouns (edit)
Person Singular Possessive Plural Possessive Reflexive Possessive
First iou, io, mi*, ieu* iou-sa, iou-sua#, minha, io-sa, io-sua# nôs, nosôtro* nôs-sa, nôsso, nôs-sua# onçóm su, onçóm-sa*, onçóm-sua#
Second vôs vôs-sa, vôsso, su, vôs-sua# vosôtro vosôtro-sa, su, vosôtro-sua#
Third êle, êla* êle-sa, su, êle-sua# ilôtro, elôtro*, olôtro*, ulôtro* ilôtro-sa, su, ilôtro-sua#

#: dated.
*: rare.

References edit

Malay edit

Malay cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Shortened form of esa, from Proto-Malayic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

sa

  1. (1924-1972) Obsolete spelling of se

Derived terms edit

Maltese edit

Etymology edit

Probably from Arabic حَتَّى (ḥattā, until; as far as; even). The form, though without doubt unusual, might be explained from earlier *ħta by assimilation in fast speech. Compare Moroccan Arabic حتى (ḥta). Compare also Spanish hasta, which, if related, might point to the existence of an obsolete Maghrebi variant *ḥastā (-). Joseph Aquilina preferred to derive the Maltese form from a contraction of Italian sino a, variant of fino a (until; as far as). Both may also have reinforced each other.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

sa

  1. until
    Se nħobbok sal-aħħar nifs ta’ ħajti.
    I’ll love you until the last breath of my life.
  2. as far as

Derived terms edit

Mandarin edit

Romanization edit

sa (sa5sa0, Zhuyin ˙ㄙㄚ)

  1. Hanyu Pinyin reading of 𠮿

sa

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes edit

  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Maranao edit

Noun edit

sa

  1. tea

References edit

Masalit edit

Noun edit

sa

  1. water

References edit

  • Timothy Leffel, Focus constructions in Masalit (New York University, 05/31/2011)

Matal edit

Etymology 1 edit

Likely from Proto-Chadic *sa (to drink).[1] Cognate with Mpade se (to drink).

Verb edit

sa

  1. to drink
    Kà uwana may azà à gi, kavàw à gi tatak may, nəlay akə̀s à gi, katə̀ɗàw gi iyaw gəsà, gəgà məlok gà, kakə̀sàw gi la ahàl səla. (Mata 25:35)[2]
    For I was hungry and you gave me something to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink (lit: so I drank), I was a stranger and you welcomed me as a guest. (Matthew 25:35)
    Kəla uwabeyuwi uwana asà iyaw aŋa suwa uwanay, nəlay adàkəsay aya (Yuhana 4:13)[3]
    Everyone who drinks of this water will be thirsty again.(John 4:13)

Etymology 2 edit

Likely from Proto-Chadic *(-)sə (to come).[4]

Verb edit

sa

  1. to come
    La kità Yuhana asà à waŋ, azùw aw, asà aw, ŋgaha azladza tagòɗ kà: 'Masla la masasəɗok mawisiga.' (Mata 11:18)[5]
    For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, ‘He has a demon!’ (Matthew 11:18)
    La mavakay uwatà Yesu asà à uda la kay, ŋgaha ahàd adzà madzay la gay dərəv kà matapla tatak à azladza. (Matthew 13:1)[6]
    ​On that day Jesus came out of the house and was sitting by the sea. (Matthew 13:1)
    "à waŋ, à waŋ", tagòɗ à mamətsay, ama mamətsay ahòy atà à ahàl. (Mafətala 9:6)[7]
    Come here, come here, they said to the death, but the death flew from them (Revelation 9:6)

References edit

  1. ^ Newman, Paul (1977) Chadic Classification and Reconstructions (Afroasiatic Linguistics; 5)‎[1], Malibu: Undena
  2. ^ http://listen.bible.is/MFHWYI/Matt/25#35
  3. ^ http://listen.bible.is/MFHWYI/John/4#13
  4. ^ Newman, Paul (1977) Chadic Classification and Reconstructions (Afroasiatic Linguistics; 5)‎[2], Malibu: Undena
  5. ^ http://listen.bible.is/MFHWYI/Matt/11#18
  6. ^ http://listen.bible.is/MFHWYI/Matt/13#1
  7. ^ http://listen.bible.is/MFHWYI/Rev/9

Minangkabau edit

Minangkabau cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa

Etymology edit

From Proto-Malayic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Northern Roglai edit

Northern Roglai cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa

Etymology edit

From Proto-Chamic *sa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. simple past of si

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. past of seia

Ojibwe edit

Particle edit

sa

  1. emphasis marker
    Mii sa go ozhiitaawaad igo.
    They were getting ready.

References edit

Old French edit

Etymology edit

From Latin sua, feminine of suus.

Determiner edit

sa f (masculine son, plural ses)

  1. his/hers/its (third-person singular possessive)

Descendants edit

  • French: sa

Old Frisian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *swa.

Conjunction edit

  1. so
  2. as
  3. or

Old Irish edit

Determiner edit

sa

  1. Alternative spelling of so

Pali edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronoun edit

sa

  1. he, it

Adjective edit

sa

  1. masculine nominative singular of ta (that)

Noun edit

sa

  1. vocative singular of san (dog)

Palu'e edit

Palu'e cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa

Etymology edit

From Proto-Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *isa, *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *isa, *əsa, *asa.

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Papiamentu edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Portuguese saber and Spanish saber and Kabuverdianu sabe.

Verb edit

sa

  1. to know

Pawaia edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

sa

  1. water

References edit

  • Phonological Considerations of Pawaia, in Oceania Linguistic Monographs, issues 14-15 (1971)
  • Transnewguinea.org, citing both D. Trefry, A comparative study of Kuman and Pawaian (1969) and G. E. MacDonald, The Teberan Language Family, pages 111-121, in The Linguistic Situation in the Gulf District and Adjacent Area, Papua New Guinea (editor K. J. Franklin) (1973)

Rade edit

Rade cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa

Etymology edit

From Proto-Chamic *sa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Rawang edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. to wait.

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

sa

  1. bird; fowl.

Romani edit

Pronoun edit

sa

  1. all

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

From Vulgar Latin *sa, from Latin sua, the feminine form of suus.

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

sa f

  1. feminine singular of său: his/her

Pronoun edit

sa f (possessive pronouns)

  1. (preceded by "a") his/hers (that which is his or hers)

Sardinian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • s' (apocopated, used before vowels)

Etymology edit

From Latin ipsa (herself), feminine of ipse (himself).

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

sa f (plural (Logudorese, Nuorese) sas or (Campidanese) is, masculine su)

  1. (Logudorese, Campidanese, Nuorese) the (feminine singular definite article)

References edit

  • Rubattu, Antoninu (2006) Dizionario universale della lingua di Sardegna, 2nd edition, Sassari: Edes
  • Wagner, Max Leopold (1960–1964), “ísse”, in Dizionario etimologico sardo, Heidelberg

Scottish Gaelic edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Irish (i)sind, (i)sin, from Old Irish isin(d/t) (in the m or f or n sg dative), isin (into the m or f sg accusative), isa (into the n sg accusative).

Preposition edit

sa

  1. in the
    sa bhliadhna de dh'aois Chrìostin the year of our Lord, anno domini

Usage notes edit

  • Triggers lenition.
  • This form is used before nouns beginning with b, c, g, m or p; otherwise san is used instead.
  • Often understood to be a contraction of anns a', but the forms san, sa were in common use by the 12th century and accepted in Classical Gaelic poetry while anns is a later innovation with the -n- reintroduced by analogy.

Related terms edit

References edit

  • Osborn Bergin (1916), “Irish Grammatical Tracts (Introductory)”, in Ériu, volume 8, Supplement, Royal Irish Academy, →DOI, →JSTOR, §67, page 17
  • McKenna, Lambert, editor (1944) Bardic Syntactical Tracts, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, page 113: “Before pl. art. i n- gives is na, ’sna; in such cases a h- gives as na. (…) Before sg. art. i n- is isin, san (often sa before consonants).”
  • G. Toner, M. Ní Mhaonaigh, S. Arbuthnot, D. Wodtko, M.-L. Theuerkauf, editors (2019), “i”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language

Serbo-Croatian edit

Preposition edit

sa (Cyrillic spelling са)

  1. Alternative form of s; used instead of s when the following word or group of words start with sibilants s, z, š or ž and before instrumental form of first-person pronoun ja (mnom).

Slovak edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *sę, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *sen, from Proto-Indo-European *swé.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

sa

  1. replaces the accusative of any personal pronoun whenever the object, whether expressed or implied, is of the same person as the subject. Typically can be translated as the corresponding version of oneself:
    vidím sa v zrkadleI see myself in the mirror
    Koho vidíš v zrkadle? Seba.Whom do you see in the mirror? Myself.
  2. (reflexive) bound with certain verbs, similar to the Italian si. The pronoun is a part of the verb
    modliť sato pray

Usage notes edit

  • In regular sentences, it has to be on the 2nd position of the sentence.
    Modlím sa.I am praying.
  • In sentences in the past tense, sa moves to the third position while the inflected form of the verb byť takes the 2nd position.
    Modlil som sa.I was praying.
  • In hypothetical sentences, sa moves to the fourth position of the sentences with the inflected form of byť occupying the 3rd position and the pronoun by taking the 2nd position.
    Modlil by som sa, keby...I would pray, if ...

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • sa”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

South Slavey edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Athabaskan *x̯ʷa. Cognates include Navajo shá and Dogrib sa.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [sà(ʔ)]
  • Hyphenation: sa

Noun edit

sa (stem -za-)

  1. sun
  2. month

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Keren Rice (1989) A Grammar of Slave, Berlin, West Germany: Mouton de Gruyter, →ISBN, page 215

Southern Ndebele edit

Verb edit

-sa?

  1. to take

Inflection edit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Sranan Tongo edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From English shall or borrowed from Dutch zal.

Particle edit

sa

  1. Verbal marker for modal aspect.
  2. Verbal marker for the future tense.
    Synonym: o
    • 1975, “Basya Adyuku koni”, in Ursy M. Lichtveld, Jan Voorhoeve, editors, Creole drum. An Anthology of Creole Literature in Surinam[8], New Haven, London: Yale University Press, →ISBN, page 86:
      A krabdagu taki: - Angri e kiri mi ba. A di mi si yu e nyan, ne mi kon.
      Adyuku taki: - We san mi e nyan, mi no sabi efu yu sa nyan en. Na kasaba dokun mi tyari. Efu yu sa nyan en, dan mi sa gi yu.
      The crab-eating raccoon said: 'I'm starving, brother. When I saw that you're eating, I came over immediately.
      Adyuku said: 'I say, I don't know whether you'll [want to] eat what I'm eating. I brought cassava duckanoo. If you'll eat it, then I'll give it to you.
    • 1999, Hillary de Bruin, “Liederen uit de praktijk van de duman [Songs from the Winti priest's practice]”, in OSO. Tijdschrift voor Surinaamse taalkunde, letterkunde en geschiedenis[9], Instituut ter Bevordering van de Surinamistiek, →ISSN, page 152:
      Blesi sa kon bogobogo, Masra pramis' m'anga yu, Lek'wan alen a sa wiki, Kraf' den di bribi fu tru, Sula fu seigi, wan dei sa was' kon na gron, now wan tu dropu de spiti, ma sibibusi sa kon
      Blessing will come abundantly / the Lord promised to me and you / like a rainshower it will awaken / strengthen those who truly believe / With cataracts of blessing / one day the ground will be awash / now a few droplets are spitting / but torrential rains will come

Etymology 2 edit

From English saw.

Noun edit

sa

  1. A saw (tool with a serrated blade, used for sawing).

Sumerian edit

Romanization edit

sa

  1. Romanization of 𒊓 (sa)

Swazi edit

Verb edit

-sá

  1. to dawn

Inflection edit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Swedish edit

Etymology edit

Apocopic form of sade

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. (somewhat informal) past indicative of säga

Anagrams edit

Tagalog edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *sa. Compare Bikol Central sa, Cebuano sa, Hiligaynon sa, Waray-Waray ha, Tausug ha, and Gorontalo ta.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

sa (Baybayin spelling )

  1. indirect object marker: to
    Binigay ko na ang lahat sa kaibigan ko.I already gave everything to my friend.
  2. used to refer to the location of something or some action: in; at; on (not used in a positive equational sentence)
    Sa Pilipinas ako ipinanganak.I was born in the Philippines.
    Wala siya sa opisina.He's not at the office.
  3. used to refer towards a location: to; toward
    Pupunta siya sa sinehan mamaya.He's going to the movies later.
  4. used to refer to accompaniment: with; together with; in company with
    Sumama si Juan sa tatay niya.Juan went with his father.
  5. used to refer to a time period: at; on; in; during (of a year, month, day of the week, time of day, etc.)
    Sa Lunes kami uuwi.We're going home on Monday.
  6. used in comparisons: than
    Synonym: kaysa
    Mas mabilis ang eroplano sa kotse mo.The airplane is faster than your car.
  7. used to refer to a place of origin or where one comes from: from; of (usually with galing or tubo)
    Tubo siya sa Cebu.He is a native from Cebu.
  8. a prescribed point in time when something occurred: upon; on; at the time of
    Sa pagpasok niya sa bahay, tumunog ang telepono.Upon his entrance to the house, the telephone rang.
  9. used to refer to the cause: due to; from; of
    Namatay sila sa gutom.They died of hunger.
  10. used to refer to the basis: on the basis of; on
    Lumabas ang estudyante sa pahintulot ng guro.The student went out based on the permission from the teacher.
  11. used to refer to one's dependence on or use of: on; through the use of
    Nabuhay sila sa tubig at tinapay lamang.They lived only on water and bread.
  12. used in combination with other words to form more specific prepositional phrases
    sa pamamagitan ngby means of
    mula safrom
Usage notes edit
Derived terms edit
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Influenced by Baybayin character (sa).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

sa (Baybayin spelling )

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter S/s, in the Abakada alphabet.
    Synonyms: (in the Filipino alphabet) es, (in the Abecedario) ese
See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

See tsa.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

sa (Baybayin spelling )

  1. Obsolete form of tsa.

Further reading edit

  • sa”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Tausug edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *salaq.

Noun edit

  1. fault, mistake

Tooro edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Common Bantu *-ca (empty).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

-sa (declinable)

  1. (rare) empty, bare
    Near-synonym: -onka
    bigere bisabarefoot

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

  • busa (naked; nothing)

References edit

  1. Kaji, Shigeki (2007) A Rutooro Vocabulary[10] (in English), Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA), →ISBN, page 349
  2. Rubongoya, L. T. (2013) Katondogorozi y'Orunyoro-Rutooro n'Orungereza [Runyoro-Rutooro-English and English-Runyoro-Rutooro dictionary]‎[11] (in English), Kampala: Modrug Publishers, →ISBN, page 352
  3. Entry 9239 at Bantu Lexical Reconstructions 3

Tunica edit

Noun edit

sa

  1. dog

Turkish edit

Phrase edit

sa

  1. (Internet) Initialism of selamünaleyküm.

Vietnamese edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

Noun edit

sa

  1. (medicine equipment) gauze

Etymology 2 edit

Alternative forms edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. to fall (especially from the sky); to drop down; to prolapse

Welsh edit

Verb edit

sa (not mutable)

  1. (South Wales) first-person singular present negative colloquial of bod
    Sa i’n gwybod.
    I don’t know.
  2. (colloquial) Contraction of basai.

Usage notes edit

Unlike other negative verb forms, the present negative form—and so, which is used for all other persons—is not complemented by ddim after the subject.

West Frisian edit

Conjunction edit

sa

  1. so

Further reading edit

  • sa (I)”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

West Makian edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

sa

  1. (stative) to be bad
  2. (stative) to be rotten

Conjugation edit

Conjugation of sa (stative verb)
singular plural
inclusive exclusive
1st person tisa misa asa
2nd person nisa fisa
3rd person inanimate isa disa
animate masa
imperative —, sa —, sa

References edit

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[12], Pacific linguistics

Western Cham edit

Western Cham cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : sa

Etymology edit

From Proto-Chamic *sa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

sa

  1. one

Xaragure edit

Etymology edit

Compare Drehu xe (smack).

Verb edit

sa

  1. hit

References edit

  • Claire Moyse-Faurie, Constructions expressing middle, reflexive and reciprocal situations in some Oceanic languages, in Reciprocals and Reflexives: Theoretical and Typological Explorations

Xhosa edit

Etymology 1 edit

Verb edit

-sa?

  1. to take
Inflection edit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Ideophone edit

  1. Signifies scattering.

Yámana edit

Pronoun edit

sa

  1. you

Zhuang edit

Etymology edit

This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Related to Mandarin (shā) or Lao ຊາຍ (sāi) and Thai ทราย (traai)?”

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

sa (Sawndip form , 1957–1982 spelling sa)

  1. sand

Adjective edit

sa (1957–1982 spelling sa)

  1. sandy

Zou edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Kuki-Chin *saa.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /sà/
  • Hyphenation: sa

Adjective edit

sa

  1. hot

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Kuki-Chin *shaa, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *sja-n.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /sǎ/
  • Hyphenation: sa

Noun edit

  1. meat
  2. animal
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Proto-Kuki-Chin *tshaʔ.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /sâ/
  • Hyphenation: sa

Adjective edit

  1. dense, thick

References edit

  • Lukram Himmat Singh (2013) A Descriptive Grammar of Zou, Canchipur: Manipur University, page 62

Zulu edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Bantu *-kéa.

Verb edit

-sá

  1. (intransitive) to dawn
Inflection edit
Tone H
Infinitive ukusa
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukusa ukungasi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular yisa -se
Plural yisani -seni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyasa, ngisa engisayo, engisa ngisa angisi engingasi ngingasi
2nd singular uyasa, usa osayo, osa usa awusi ongasi ungasi
1st plural siyasa, sisa esisayo, esisa sisa asisi esingasi singasi
2nd plural niyasa, nisa enisayo, enisa nisa anisi eningasi ningasi
Class 1 uyasa, usa osayo, osa esa akasi ongasi engasi
Class 2 bayasa, basa abasayo, abasa besa abasi abangasi bengasi
Class 3 uyasa, usa osayo, osa usa awusi ongasi ungasi
Class 4 iyasa, isa esayo, esa isa ayisi engasi ingasi
Class 5 liyasa, lisa elisayo, elisa lisa alisi elingasi lingasi
Class 6 ayasa, asa asayo, asa esa awasi angasi engasi
Class 7 siyasa, sisa esisayo, esisa sisa asisi esingasi singasi
Class 8 ziyasa, zisa ezisayo, ezisa zisa azisi ezingasi zingasi
Class 9 iyasa, isa esayo, esa isa ayisi engasi ingasi
Class 10 ziyasa, zisa ezisayo, ezisa zisa azisi ezingasi zingasi
Class 11 luyasa, lusa olusayo, olusa lusa alusi olungasi lungasi
Class 14 buyasa, busa obusayo, obusa busa abusi obungasi bungasi
Class 15 kuyasa, kusa okusayo, okusa kusa akusi okungasi kungasi
Class 17 kuyasa, kusa okusayo, okusa kusa akusi okungasi kungasi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngisile, ngisē engisile, engisē ngisile, ngisē angisanga engingasanga ngingasanga
2nd singular usile, usē osile, osē usile, usē awusanga ongasanga ungasanga
1st plural sisile, sisē esisile, esisē sisile, sisē asisanga esingasanga singasanga
2nd plural nisile, nisē enisile, enisē nisile, nisē anisanga eningasanga ningasanga
Class 1 usile, usē osile, osē esile, esē akasanga ongasanga engasanga
Class 2 basile, basē abasile, abasē besile, besē abasanga abangasanga bengasanga
Class 3 usile, usē osile, osē usile, usē awusanga ongasanga ungasanga
Class 4 isile, isē esile, esē isile, isē ayisanga engasanga ingasanga
Class 5 lisile, lisē elisile, elisē lisile, lisē alisanga elingasanga lingasanga
Class 6 asile, asē asile, asē esile, esē awasanga angasanga engasanga
Class 7 sisile, sisē esisile, esisē sisile, sisē asisanga esingasanga singasanga
Class 8 zisile, zisē ezisile, ezisē zisile, zisē azisanga ezingasanga zingasanga
Class 9 isile, isē esile, esē isile, isē ayisanga engasanga ingasanga
Class 10 zisile, zisē ezisile, ezisē zisile, zisē azisanga ezingasanga zingasanga
Class 11 lusile, lusē olusile, olusē lusile, lusē alusanga olungasanga lungasanga
Class 14 busile, busē obusile, obusē busile, busē abusanga obungasanga bungasanga
Class 15 kusile, kusē okusile, okusē kusile, kusē akusanga okungasanga kungasanga
Class 17 kusile, kusē okusile, okusē kusile, kusē akusanga okungasanga kungasanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāsa engāsa ngāsa angisanga engingasanga ngingasanga
2nd singular wāsa owāsa wāsa awusanga ongasanga ungasanga
1st plural sāsa esāsa sāsa asisanga esingasanga singasanga
2nd plural nāsa enāsa nāsa anisanga eningasanga ningasanga
Class 1 wāsa owāsa āsa akasanga ongasanga engasanga
Class 2 bāsa abāsa bāsa abasanga abangasanga bengasanga
Class 3 wāsa owāsa wāsa awusanga ongasanga ungasanga
Class 4 yāsa eyāsa yāsa ayisanga engasanga ingasanga
Class 5 lāsa elāsa lāsa alisanga elingasanga lingasanga
Class 6 āsa āsa āsa awasanga angasanga engasanga
Class 7 sāsa esāsa sāsa asisanga esingasanga singasanga
Class 8 zāsa ezāsa zāsa azisanga ezingasanga zingasanga
Class 9 yāsa eyāsa yāsa ayisanga engasanga ingasanga
Class 10 zāsa ezāsa zāsa azisanga ezingasanga zingasanga
Class 11 lwāsa olwāsa lwāsa alusanga olungasanga lungasanga
Class 14 bāsa obāsa bāsa abusanga obungasanga bungasanga
Class 15 kwāsa okwāsa kwāsa akusanga okungasanga kungasanga
Class 17 kwāsa okwāsa kwāsa akusanga okungasanga kungasanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingasa ngingasa ngingese ngingese
2nd singular ungasa ungasa ungese ungese
1st plural singasa singasa singese singese
2nd plural ningasa ningasa ningese ningese
Class 1 angasa engasa angese engese
Class 2 bangasa bengasa bangese bengese
Class 3 ungasa ungasa ungese ungese
Class 4 ingasa ingasa ingese ingese
Class 5 lingasa lingasa lingese lingese
Class 6 angasa engasa angese engese
Class 7 singasa singasa singese singese
Class 8 zingasa zingasa zingese zingese
Class 9 ingasa ingasa ingese ingese
Class 10 zingasa zingasa zingese zingese
Class 11 lungasa lungasa lungese lungese
Class 14 bungasa bungasa bungese bungese
Class 15 kungasa kungasa kungese kungese
Class 17 kungasa kungasa kungese kungese
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizokusa engizokusa ngizokusa angizukusa engingezukusa ngingezukusa
2nd singular uzokusa ozokusa uzokusa awuzukusa ongezukusa ungezukusa
1st plural sizokusa esizokusa sizokusa asizukusa esingezukusa singezukusa
2nd plural nizokusa enizokusa nizokusa anizukusa eningezukusa ningezukusa
Class 1 uzokusa ozokusa ezokusa akazukusa ongezukusa engezukusa
Class 2 bazokusa abazokusa bezokusa abazukusa abangezukusa bengezukusa
Class 3 uzokusa ozokusa uzokusa awuzukusa ongezukusa ungezukusa
Class 4 izokusa ezokusa izokusa ayizukusa engezukusa ingezukusa
Class 5 lizokusa elizokusa lizokusa alizukusa elingezukusa lingezukusa
Class 6 azokusa azokusa ezokusa awazukusa angezukusa engezukusa
Class 7 sizokusa esizokusa sizokusa asizukusa esingezukusa singezukusa
Class 8 zizokusa ezizokusa zizokusa azizukusa ezingezukusa zingezukusa
Class 9 izokusa ezokusa izokusa ayizukusa engezukusa ingezukusa
Class 10 zizokusa ezizokusa zizokusa azizukusa ezingezukusa zingezukusa
Class 11 luzokusa oluzokusa luzokusa aluzukusa olungezukusa lungezukusa
Class 14 buzokusa obuzokusa buzokusa abuzukusa obungezukusa bungezukusa
Class 15 kuzokusa okuzokusa kuzokusa akuzukusa okungezukusa kungezukusa
Class 17 kuzokusa okuzokusa kuzokusa akuzukusa okungezukusa kungezukusa
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyokusa engiyokusa ngiyokusa angiyukusa engingeyukusa ngingeyukusa
2nd singular uyokusa oyokusa uyokusa awuyukusa ongeyukusa ungeyukusa
1st plural siyokusa esiyokusa siyokusa asiyukusa esingeyukusa singeyukusa
2nd plural niyokusa eniyokusa niyokusa aniyukusa eningeyukusa ningeyukusa
Class 1 uyokusa oyokusa eyokusa akayukusa ongeyukusa engeyukusa
Class 2 bayokusa abayokusa beyokusa abayukusa abangeyukusa bengeyukusa
Class 3 uyokusa oyokusa uyokusa awuyukusa ongeyukusa ungeyukusa
Class 4 iyokusa eyokusa iyokusa ayiyukusa engeyukusa ingeyukusa
Class 5 liyokusa eliyokusa liyokusa aliyukusa elingeyukusa lingeyukusa
Class 6 ayokusa ayokusa eyokusa awayukusa angeyukusa engeyukusa
Class 7 siyokusa esiyokusa siyokusa asiyukusa esingeyukusa singeyukusa
Class 8 ziyokusa eziyokusa ziyokusa aziyukusa ezingeyukusa zingeyukusa
Class 9 iyokusa eyokusa iyokusa ayiyukusa engeyukusa ingeyukusa
Class 10 ziyokusa eziyokusa ziyokusa aziyukusa ezingeyukusa zingeyukusa
Class 11 luyokusa oluyokusa luyokusa aluyukusa olungeyukusa lungeyukusa
Class 14 buyokusa obuyokusa buyokusa abuyukusa obungeyukusa bungeyukusa
Class 15 kuyokusa okuyokusa kuyokusa akuyukusa okungeyukusa kungeyukusa
Class 17 kuyokusa okuyokusa kuyokusa akuyukusa okungeyukusa kungeyukusa
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngise ngingasi
2nd singular use ungasi
1st plural sise singasi
2nd plural nise ningasi
Class 1 ase angasi
Class 2 base bangasi
Class 3 use ungasi
Class 4 ise ingasi
Class 5 lise lingasi
Class 6 ase angasi
Class 7 sise singasi
Class 8 zise zingasi
Class 9 ise ingasi
Class 10 zise zingasi
Class 11 luse lungasi
Class 14 buse bungasi
Class 15 kuse kungasi
Class 17 kuse kungasi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngasa ngangasa, angasa, angangasa
2nd singular wasa wangasa, awasa, awangasa
1st plural sasa sangasa, asasa, asangasa
2nd plural nasa nangasa, anasa, anangasa
Class 1 wasa wangasa, akasa, akangasa
Class 2 basa bangasa, abasa, abangasa
Class 3 wasa wangasa, awasa, awangasa
Class 4 yasa yangasa, ayasa, ayangasa
Class 5 lasa langasa, alasa, alangasa
Class 6 asa angasa, awasa, awangasa
Class 7 sasa sangasa, asasa, asangasa
Class 8 zasa zangasa, azasa, azangasa
Class 9 yasa yangasa, ayasa, ayangasa
Class 10 zasa zangasa, azasa, azangasa
Class 11 lwasa lwangasa, alwasa, alwangasa
Class 14 basa bangasa, abasa, abangasa
Class 15 kwasa kwangasa, akwasa, akwangasa
Class 17 kwasa kwangasa, akwasa, akwangasa

Etymology 2 edit

Clipping of -yisa.

Verb edit

-sa

  1. (transitive) to take to
  2. (transitive) to convey, to send, to transfer
Inflection edit
Tone L
Infinitive ukusa
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukusa ukungasi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular yisa -se
Plural yisani -seni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyasa, ngisa engisayo, engisa ngisa angisi engingasi ngingasi
2nd singular uyasa, usa osayo, osa usa awusi ongasi ungasi
1st plural siyasa, sisa esisayo, esisa sisa asisi esingasi singasi
2nd plural niyasa, nisa enisayo, enisa nisa anisi eningasi ningasi
Class 1 uyasa, usa osayo, osa esa akasi ongasi engasi
Class 2 bayasa, basa abasayo, abasa besa abasi abangasi bengasi
Class 3 uyasa, usa osayo, osa usa awusi ongasi ungasi
Class 4 iyasa, isa esayo, esa isa ayisi engasi ingasi
Class 5 liyasa, lisa elisayo, elisa lisa alisi elingasi lingasi
Class 6 ayasa, asa asayo, asa esa awasi angasi engasi
Class 7 siyasa, sisa esisayo, esisa sisa asisi esingasi singasi
Class 8 ziyasa, zisa ezisayo, ezisa zisa azisi ezingasi zingasi
Class 9 iyasa, isa esayo, esa isa ayisi engasi ingasi
Class 10 ziyasa, zisa ezisayo, ezisa zisa azisi ezingasi zingasi
Class 11 luyasa, lusa olusayo, olusa lusa alusi olungasi lungasi
Class 14 buyasa, busa obusayo, obusa busa abusi obungasi bungasi
Class 15 kuyasa, kusa okusayo, okusa kusa akusi okungasi kungasi
Class 17 kuyasa, kusa okusayo, okusa kusa akusi okungasi kungasi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngisile, ngisē engisile, engisē ngisile, ngisē angisanga engingasanga ngingasanga
2nd singular usile, usē osile, osē usile, usē awusanga ongasanga ungasanga
1st plural sisile, sisē esisile, esisē sisile, sisē asisanga esingasanga singasanga
2nd plural nisile, nisē enisile, enisē nisile, nisē anisanga eningasanga ningasanga
Class 1 usile, usē osile, osē esile, esē akasanga ongasanga engasanga
Class 2 basile, basē abasile, abasē besile, besē abasanga abangasanga bengasanga
Class 3 usile, usē osile, osē usile, usē awusanga ongasanga ungasanga
Class 4 isile, isē esile, esē isile, isē ayisanga engasanga ingasanga
Class 5 lisile, lisē elisile, elisē lisile, lisē alisanga elingasanga lingasanga
Class 6 asile, asē asile, asē esile, esē awasanga angasanga engasanga
Class 7 sisile, sisē esisile, esisē sisile, sisē asisanga esingasanga singasanga
Class 8 zisile, zisē ezisile, ezisē zisile, zisē azisanga ezingasanga zingasanga
Class 9 isile, isē esile, esē isile, isē ayisanga engasanga ingasanga
Class 10 zisile, zisē ezisile, ezisē zisile, zisē azisanga ezingasanga zingasanga
Class 11 lusile, lusē olusile, olusē lusile, lusē alusanga olungasanga lungasanga
Class 14 busile, busē obusile, obusē busile, busē abusanga obungasanga bungasanga
Class 15 kusile, kusē okusile, okusē kusile, kusē akusanga okungasanga kungasanga
Class 17 kusile, kusē okusile, okusē kusile, kusē akusanga okungasanga kungasanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāsa engāsa ngāsa angisanga engingasanga ngingasanga
2nd singular wāsa owāsa wāsa awusanga ongasanga ungasanga
1st plural sāsa esāsa sāsa asisanga esingasanga singasanga
2nd plural nāsa enāsa nāsa anisanga eningasanga ningasanga
Class 1 wāsa owāsa āsa akasanga ongasanga engasanga
Class 2 bāsa abāsa bāsa abasanga abangasanga bengasanga
Class 3 wāsa owāsa wāsa awusanga ongasanga ungasanga
Class 4 yāsa eyāsa yāsa ayisanga engasanga ingasanga
Class 5 lāsa elāsa lāsa alisanga elingasanga lingasanga
Class 6 āsa āsa āsa awasanga angasanga engasanga
Class 7 sāsa esāsa sāsa asisanga esingasanga singasanga
Class 8 zāsa ezāsa zāsa azisanga ezingasanga zingasanga
Class 9 yāsa eyāsa yāsa ayisanga engasanga ingasanga
Class 10 zāsa ezāsa zāsa azisanga ezingasanga zingasanga
Class 11 lwāsa olwāsa lwāsa alusanga olungasanga lungasanga
Class 14 bāsa obāsa bāsa abusanga obungasanga bungasanga
Class 15 kwāsa okwāsa kwāsa akusanga okungasanga kungasanga
Class 17 kwāsa okwāsa kwāsa akusanga okungasanga kungasanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingasa ngingasa ngingese ngingese
2nd singular ungasa ungasa ungese ungese
1st plural singasa singasa singese singese
2nd plural ningasa ningasa ningese ningese
Class 1 angasa engasa angese engese
Class 2 bangasa bengasa bangese bengese
Class 3 ungasa ungasa ungese ungese
Class 4 ingasa ingasa ingese ingese
Class 5 lingasa lingasa lingese lingese
Class 6 angasa engasa angese engese
Class 7 singasa singasa singese singese
Class 8 zingasa zingasa zingese zingese
Class 9 ingasa ingasa ingese ingese
Class 10 zingasa zingasa zingese zingese
Class 11 lungasa lungasa lungese lungese
Class 14 bungasa bungasa bungese bungese
Class 15 kungasa kungasa kungese kungese
Class 17 kungasa kungasa kungese kungese
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizokusa engizokusa ngizokusa angizukusa engingezukusa ngingezukusa
2nd singular uzokusa ozokusa uzokusa awuzukusa ongezukusa ungezukusa
1st plural sizokusa esizokusa sizokusa asizukusa esingezukusa singezukusa
2nd plural nizokusa enizokusa nizokusa anizukusa eningezukusa ningezukusa
Class 1 uzokusa ozokusa ezokusa akazukusa ongezukusa engezukusa
Class 2 bazokusa abazokusa bezokusa abazukusa abangezukusa bengezukusa
Class 3 uzokusa ozokusa uzokusa awuzukusa ongezukusa ungezukusa
Class 4 izokusa ezokusa izokusa ayizukusa engezukusa ingezukusa
Class 5 lizokusa elizokusa lizokusa alizukusa elingezukusa lingezukusa
Class 6 azokusa azokusa ezokusa awazukusa angezukusa engezukusa
Class 7 sizokusa esizokusa sizokusa asizukusa esingezukusa singezukusa
Class 8 zizokusa ezizokusa zizokusa azizukusa ezingezukusa zingezukusa
Class 9 izokusa ezokusa izokusa ayizukusa engezukusa ingezukusa
Class 10 zizokusa ezizokusa zizokusa azizukusa ezingezukusa zingezukusa
Class 11 luzokusa oluzokusa luzokusa aluzukusa olungezukusa lungezukusa
Class 14 buzokusa obuzokusa buzokusa abuzukusa obungezukusa bungezukusa
Class 15 kuzokusa okuzokusa kuzokusa akuzukusa okungezukusa kungezukusa
Class 17 kuzokusa okuzokusa kuzokusa akuzukusa okungezukusa kungezukusa
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyokusa engiyokusa ngiyokusa angiyukusa engingeyukusa ngingeyukusa
2nd singular uyokusa oyokusa uyokusa awuyukusa ongeyukusa ungeyukusa
1st plural siyokusa esiyokusa siyokusa asiyukusa esingeyukusa singeyukusa
2nd plural niyokusa eniyokusa niyokusa aniyukusa eningeyukusa ningeyukusa
Class 1 uyokusa oyokusa eyokusa akayukusa ongeyukusa engeyukusa
Class 2 bayokusa abayokusa beyokusa abayukusa abangeyukusa bengeyukusa
Class 3 uyokusa oyokusa uyokusa awuyukusa ongeyukusa ungeyukusa
Class 4 iyokusa eyokusa iyokusa ayiyukusa engeyukusa ingeyukusa
Class 5 liyokusa eliyokusa liyokusa aliyukusa elingeyukusa lingeyukusa
Class 6 ayokusa ayokusa eyokusa awayukusa angeyukusa engeyukusa
Class 7 siyokusa esiyokusa siyokusa asiyukusa esingeyukusa singeyukusa
Class 8 ziyokusa eziyokusa ziyokusa aziyukusa ezingeyukusa zingeyukusa
Class 9 iyokusa eyokusa iyokusa ayiyukusa engeyukusa ingeyukusa
Class 10 ziyokusa eziyokusa ziyokusa aziyukusa ezingeyukusa zingeyukusa
Class 11 luyokusa oluyokusa luyokusa aluyukusa olungeyukusa lungeyukusa
Class 14 buyokusa obuyokusa buyokusa abuyukusa obungeyukusa bungeyukusa
Class 15 kuyokusa okuyokusa kuyokusa akuyukusa okungeyukusa kungeyukusa
Class 17 kuyokusa okuyokusa kuyokusa akuyukusa okungeyukusa kungeyukusa
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngise ngingasi
2nd singular use ungasi
1st plural sise singasi
2nd plural nise ningasi
Class 1 ase angasi
Class 2 base bangasi
Class 3 use ungasi
Class 4 ise ingasi
Class 5 lise lingasi
Class 6 ase angasi
Class 7 sise singasi
Class 8 zise zingasi
Class 9 ise ingasi
Class 10 zise zingasi
Class 11 luse lungasi
Class 14 buse bungasi
Class 15 kuse kungasi
Class 17 kuse kungasi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngasa ngangasa, angasa, angangasa
2nd singular wasa wangasa, awasa, awangasa
1st plural sasa sangasa, asasa, asangasa
2nd plural nasa nangasa, anasa, anangasa
Class 1 wasa wangasa, akasa, akangasa
Class 2 basa bangasa, abasa, abangasa
Class 3 wasa wangasa, awasa, awangasa
Class 4 yasa yangasa, ayasa, ayangasa
Class 5 lasa langasa, alasa, alangasa
Class 6 asa angasa, awasa, awangasa
Class 7 sasa sangasa, asasa, asangasa
Class 8 zasa zangasa, azasa, azangasa
Class 9 yasa yangasa, ayasa, ayangasa
Class 10 zasa zangasa, azasa, azangasa
Class 11 lwasa lwangasa, alwasa, alwangasa
Class 14 basa bangasa, abasa, abangasa
Class 15 kwasa kwangasa, akwasa, akwangasa
Class 17 kwasa kwangasa, akwasa, akwangasa

References edit