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Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kʷís

(Redirected from Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kʷod)
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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

EtymologyEdit

A PIE interrogative-indefinite paradigm built from the stems *kʷi- and *kʷe- (parallel to anaphoric i-, e-), the former on nom. and acc. cases of all genders, the latter elsewhere, with no distinction of feminine forms, mostly "human" - "non-human". A stem *kʷo-, o-stem adjective, with its corresponding feminine *kʷeh₂-, was originally separate, but in most languages there was some conflation with the other two, as it is from this function that the relative pronoun evolves.

PronounEdit

*kʷís

  1. who, what (interrogative)
  2. who, which, that (relative)

DeclensionEdit

Andrew Sihler's reconstruction
Singular Plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
nominative *kʷís *kʷís *kʷíd *kʷéyes *kʷéyes *kʷíh₂
accusative *kʷím *kʷím *kʷíd *kʷíms *kʷíms *kʷíh₂
genitive *kʷésyo *kʷésyo *kʷésyo *kʷéysom *kʷéysom *kʷéysom
dative *kʷésmey *kʷésmey *kʷésmey *kʷeybʰ- *kʷeybʰ- *kʷeybʰ-
locative *kʷésmi *kʷésmi *kʷésmi *kʷeysu *kʷeysu *kʷeysu
Robert Beekes's reconstruction
Singular Plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
nominative *kʷé *kʷé *kʷíd *kʷéy *kʷéy *kʷíh₂
accusative *kʷím *kʷím *kʷíd *? *? *kʷíh₂
genitive *kʷéso *kʷéso *kʷéso *? *? *?
ablative *kʷéd? *kʷéd? *kʷéd? *? *? *?
dative *kʷésmey *kʷésmey *kʷésmey *? *? *?
locative *kʷésmi *kʷésmi *kʷésmi *? *? *?
instrumental *kʷéy *kʷéy *kʷéy *? *? *?

DeterminerEdit

*kʷos

  1. which, what

DeclensionEdit

Andrew Sihler's reconstruction
Singular Plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
nominative *kʷós *kʷéh₂ *kʷód *kʷóy *kʷeh₂(e)s *kʷeh₂
accusative *kʷóm *kʷéh₂m *kʷód *kʷóms *kʷeh₂ms *kʷeh₂
genitive *kʷósyo *? *kʷósyo *? *? *?
dative *kʷósmey *? *kʷósmey *? *? *?
Robert Beekes's reconstruction
Singular Plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
nominative *kʷó *kʷéh₂ *kʷód *kʷóy *kʷéh₂es? *kʷh₂?
accusative *kʷóm *? *kʷíd *? *? *kʷíh₂
genitive *kʷóso *? *kʷóso *? *? *?
ablative *kʷósmōd? *? *kʷósmōd? *? *? *?
dative *kʷósmōy *? *kʷósmōy *? *? *?
locative *kʷósmi *? *kʷósmi *? *? *?
instrumental *kʷóy *? *kʷóy *? *? *?

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

The following lists the descendants of both *kʷis and kʷos, as they were usually confused and merged together to various degrees.

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *kʷís not found

ReferencesEdit